Everything you wanna know about CEH v12


Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH) – INTRODUCTION ‘To beat a hacker, you need to think like one. EC Council
Your ability to master hacking tools and tactics is aided by a Certified Ethical Hacker(CEH) certification. To maintain strong security systems, you will learn how to scan,
test, secure, and even hack. CEH in cybersecurity is a good place to start your career.
Given how difficult the CEH exam is to pass, having this certification can help you gain respect across the globe in the field of cybersecurity. We acknowledge your
commitment and effort in clearing the CEH certification test.
One of the most prominent and sought-after professional certifications offered by thereputable International Council of E-Commerce Consultants is Certified Ethical
Hacker (CEH), also known as White Hat Hacker (EC Council). Since the advent of
the internet, network security has been a top priority. Ethical hackers act as good Menand defend computer systems from harmful intrusions, in contrast to typical hackersor bad guys who use networks for unethical or malicious purposes.
A Certified Ethical Hacker is a knowledgeable expert who examines the weaknessesand lawfully breaks into the network, exactly like any illegal hacker does, while guarding it against potential outside threats.
The Evolution of Ethical Hacking
Ethical hacking has its roots in the ancient Indian strategy game Chaturanga, which incomparable to Chess. The US Navy began using war games as a training tool in 1889.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology was the site of the first hacking incident in the 1960s. The US Air Force performed its first ethical hack in 1974 to assess the operating system’s security issues. In 1985, the inaugural edition of the e-zine Hacksaws released by and for hackers.
The past of ethical hacking tells us that being a hacker wasn’t always a bad thing. The term “ethical hacking” actually first appeared in the typical sense at the esteemed Massachusetts Institute of Technology, according to the history of the term (MIT).
Although IBM Vice President John Patrick coined the term “ethical hacking” in 1995,
the idea has existed for much longer.
Engineering students used the term “hacking” during the 1960s to describe the processof looking for new ways to optimise machines and systems so that they operated moreeffectively. The history of ethical hacking indicates that some of the world’s brightest
individuals engaged in hacking as a creative project.
About EC-Council
The greatest technical certification body for cyber security is called EC-Council, orInternational Council of E-Commerce Consultants. They have offices in 145 nationsand are the creators of renowned courses like the License Penetration Testing(Practical), Computer Hacking Forensics Investigator (C|HFI), Certified SecurityAnalyst (ECSA), and Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH). Over 200,000 informationsecurity experts have been taught and certified, and their work has changed thethinking of many organization throughout the world when it comes to cyber security.
The certification programmes have received support from numerous governmental
organization, including the US Federal Government through the Montgomery GI Bill,
the US Government National Security Agency (NSA), and the Committee on National
Security Systems. These organization include the National Security Agency and theCommittee on National Security Systems (CNSS).
Albuquerque, New Mexico serves as the head office for EC Council.
Why CEH?
The ability to attack system networks’ uncertainties and weak spots as well as
safeguard them against unauthorised hacking is offered by CEH Certification. Thiscertification aids in giving crucial information about the entire history of an exploit.
By demonstrating that penetration tester’s skill sets meet industry requirements, aCEH certification helps them land their ideal positions. Here are a few explanationsfor why obtaining CEH certification is essential.
1. Makes you ideally adapted for the profession
A Certified Ethical Hacker certification verifies your penetration testing abilitieswhen you are planning a career in cybersecurity and ensures that they comply withaccepted industry standards.
2. Fulfill Your Salary Expectations.
In an industry, hiring certified specialists is simple because there are little formal
training requirements. Organizations in the cybersecurity industry appreciatecandidates with in-depth understanding of the sector, which leads to numerous
chances and a high income for certified ethical hackers.
3. Maps to the Industry Structure
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Office of the Director ofNational Intelligence, and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) together releasedthe NICE/NIST industry framework, which the CEH exam syllabus for obtaining aCEH certification maps to (ODNI).
4. Enhances Job Security
Since cybercrime is expanding so quickly, there is a continuing need for experiencedcybersecurity specialists.
The usual cost to recover after a hack is $690,000 for small firms and more than $1million for a medium-sized business, thus investing in cybersecurity resources ismerely profitable.
An industry-recognized certification will enable you to prove your expertise as aknowledgeable IT security specialist in this growing market and secure your
Benefits of CEH Certification
>A person’s security career should advance. The CEH certification is appropriate forthe person if they can handle the job. One learns everything there is to know about
cyber security and becomes an expert in its application.
>Improves knowledge of vulnerabilities and hazards. Cyber-criminals utilize a varietyof methods to launch attacks and exploit any weaknesses. However, one can expandand increase their knowledge of risks and security by preparing for the CEH exam.
>Boost someone’s pay by a certain amount. When a person holds a certified ethical
hacker certification, his or her salary in an organization increases. It also helps toincrease job security.
>A professional with a certified ethical hacker (CEH) certification is highly helpful inany firm where security is a priority since it makes the holder a master of cybersecurity. Therefore, an organisation has a huge need for expertise in this field:
 System protection, data security, and other information
 Avoid causing harm and other cyberthreats
 Control network testing.
 Sensitize people to security issues
1. C|EH inToday’sWorld
2. Hear from our Certified Members
3. Market Changes andStudent Expectations
4. CEH v12 Introduction
5. Key updates v11 to v12
6. Learn, Certify,Engage, Compete Framework
7. Your new C|EH Story
8. C|EH v12 Packages
9. Operations &Logistics – Migrating to v12
C|EH Continues to dominate
C|EH Relevance to Industry
Job Roles:
95% improved organization security after C|EH.
97% rate the program as directly relevant to current,realworld threats.

SKILLS LEARNED IN C|EH SUPPORT20+ CYBERSECURITY JOB ROLES Mid-level Information Assurance -Security Audit
 Cybersecurity Auditor
 Security Administrator
 IT Security Administrator
 Cyber Défense Analyst
 Vulnerability Assessment Analyst
 Warning Analyst
 Information Security Analyst 1
 Security Analyst L1
 Infosec Security Administrator
 Cybersecurity Analyst L1, L2, & L3
 Network SecurityEngineer
 SOC Security Analyst
 Security Analyst
 Network Engineer
 Senior Security Consultant
 Information Security Manager
 Senior SOC Analyst
 Jr Penetration Tester
 Solution Architect
 Cybersecurity Consultant
 Security Compliance Analyst

Ethical Hacking Training Just Got Better with Gamification
C|EH v12 provides the industry’s most comprehensive program with training, certification, engage,and competition allwrapped into one program that can change the trajectory of one’s career incybersecurity. This one-of-a-kind certification provides comprehensive training in ethical hackingwith hands-on training, labs, assessment, mock engagement (practice), and global hackingcompetitions to ensure that students are at the top of their game.
INTRODUCING OUR NEW C|EH LEARNING FRAMEWORKC|EH v12 Goes Beyond Providing Training and Certification
Builds cyber careers
Creates highly skilled professionals
Helps them grow from initial interest to their first Ethical Hacking Engagement!
With C|EH v12, offer your customers a one-stop solution for cyber skill development!


Top 99 Ethical Hacking & Cyber Security Interview Question for Job Placement

Top 99 Ethical Hacking & Cyber Security Interview Question for Job Placement texial

Over the years, Cyber Security has gained momentum as a career. Many companies are up scaling their online presence leaning to latest technologies and recent advances. With much of client information found on the internet, assurance of protection has become vital. Any kind of cyber attack is a genuine concern and a risk companies can not take. Thus Cyber Security is a critical requirement in today’s industry.Here are a number of interview questions and answers that would help one get to a better job.

Q1.What is hacking?

Hacking is identifying weakness in computer systems or networks to exploit its weaknesses to gain access.

Q2.What is ethical hacking?

Ethical hacking is an process of locating weaknesses and vulnerabilities of computer and information systems by duplicating the intent and actions of malicious hackers. Ethical hacking is also known as penetration testing, intrusion testing, or red teaming. 

Q3.What are the types of hackers? Explain.

White hat hackers- A hacker who gains access to systems with a view to fix the identified weaknesses.

Black hat hacker- A hacker who gains unauthorized access to computer systems for personal gain .The intension is usually to steal corporate data, violate privacy rights, transfer funds.,etc

Grey hat hacker- A hacker who is between ethical and black hat hackers, he/she breaks into computer systems without authority with a view to indentify weaknesses and reveal them to the owner.

Hacktivists-A hacker who utilizes technology to announce a social, ideological, religious, or political message.

Script Kiddie- A non-expert who breaks into computer systems by using pre-packaged automated tools written by others, usually with little understanding of the underlying concept ,hence the term kiddie.

Q4.What are the responsibilities of ethical hacker?

·        An ethical hacker must seek authorization from the organization that owns the system. Hackers should obtain complete approval before performing any security assessment on the system or network.

·        Determine the scope of their assessment and make known their plan to the organization. 

·        Report any security breaches and vulnerabilities found in the system or network. 

·        Keep their discoveries confidential. As their purpose is to secure the system or network, ethical hackers should agree to and respect their non-disclosure agreement. 

·        Erase all traces of the hack after checking the system for any vulnerability. It prevents malicious hackers from entering the system through the identified loopholes.

Q5.What are the pros &cons of ethical hacking?


·        To fight against cyber terrorism and national security breaches. 

·        To take preventive measures against hackers. 

·        To detect vulnerabilities and close the loop holes in a system or a network. 

·        To prevent access to malicious hackers. 

·        To provide security to banking and financial settlements. 


·        Possibility of using the data against malicious hacking activities. 

·        May corrupt the files of an organization. 

·        Possibility to steal sensitive information on the computer system.

Q6.What are the types of hacking?Explain.

Website hacking-Hacking a website means taking unauthorized control over a web server and its associated software such as databases and other interfaces.

Network Hacking: Hacking a network means gathering information about a network by using tools like Telnet,Ping, Netstat, etc. with the intent to harm the network system and hamper its operation.

Email Hacking: It includes getting unauthorized access on an Email account and using it without taking the consent of its owner.

Ethical Hacking: Ethical hacking involves finding weaknesses in a computer or network system for testing purpose and finally getting them fixed.

Password Hacking: This is the process of recovering secret passwords from data that has been stored in or transmitted by a computer system.

Computer Hacking: This is the process of stealing computer ID and password by applying hacking methods and getting unauthorized access to a computer system.

Q7.What are the phases of hacking?

·        Information Gathering 

·        Scanning & Enumeration 

·        Vulnerability assessment 

·        Exploitation 

·        Clearing log

Q8.What is CIA Triangle?

·        Confidentiality : Keeping the information secret. 

·        Integrity : Keeping the information unaltered. 

·        Availability : Information is available to the authorized parties at all times.

Q9.What are the types of ethical hackers?

·        Grey Box hackers 

·        Black Box hackers 

·        White Box hackers

Q10.What is the difference between IP and MAC address?

IP (internet protocol)address

MAC(machine access control) address

To every device IP address is assigned, so that device can be located on the network(logical address).

A MAC address is a unique serial number assigned to every network interface on every device(physical address).

Q11.What are the tools used for ethical hacking?

The most popular tools are listed below: 

·        John the Ripper 

·        Metasploit 

·        Nmap 

·        Acunetix 

·        Wireshark 

·        SQLMap 

·        OpenVAS 

·        IronWASP 

·        Nikto 

·        Netsparker

Q12.What is a virus?

It is a type of malware that spreads by embedding a copy of itself and becomes a part of other programs. Viruses spread from one computer to other while sharing the software or document they are attached to using a network, file sharing, disk, or infected email attachments. 

Q13.What is a worm?

They replicate functional copy of themselves and do not require a host program or human help to propagate. Advanced worms leverage encryption, ransomware, and wipers to harm their targets.

Q14.What is Phishing?

Phishing involves a process of contacting the target user by email, phone or text message and gathering sensitive information like credit card details, passwords, etc.

Q15.What is DDoS Attack?

 Distributed denial of service is a malicious attempt to interrupt regular traffic of a targeted server or network by flooding the target with a profuse internet traffic.

Q16.What is SQL injection?

SQL injection is a web hacking technique used to destroy a database. It executes malicious SQL statements and controls a database server behind a web application. Hackers make use of these statements to bypass the security measures of the application.

Q17.What is Ransomware?

Ransomware is a type of malware, which restricts users from accessing their personal files or system and demands a ransom to regain access to them. Depending on the severity of the attack ransomware is categorized into three types, they are: 

·         Master boot record(MBR) ransomware 

·         Lock screen ransomware 

·         Encryption ransomware

Q18.What is Cryptojacking?

Malicious crypto mining or Cryptojacking is a type of online threat which uses the machine resources to mine forms of digital money known as cryptocurrency. This process can be carried out on a mobile device or on a computer.

Q19.What is Trojan Horse?

A type of malware usually hidden inside of software that user downloads and installs from the net.

Q20.Name & explain types of Trojans.

Trojan-Downloader: It is a type of virus that downloads and installs other malware.

Ransomware: It is a type of Trojan that can encrypt the data on your computer/device. 


Trojan-Droppers: These are complex programs used by cybercriminals to install malware. Most of the antivirus programs do not identify droppers as malicious, and hence it is used to install viruses.


Trojan-Rootkits: It prevents the detection of malware and malicious activities on the computer. 


Trojan-Banker: These steal user account-related information such as card payments and online banking.


Trojan-Backdoor: It is the most popular type of Trojan, that creates a backdoor to attackers to access the computer later on from remote using a remote access tool (RAT). This Trojan provides complete control over the computer.

Q21.What is Keylogger Trojan?

A malicious software that can monitor your keystroke, logging them to a file and sending them off to remote attackers. When the desired action is observed, it will record the keystroke and captures your login username and password.

Q22.What is Data Breach?

 Data breach comes under the process of a Cyber attack that enables cybercriminals to get unauthorized entry to a computer or a network. This allows them to steal private, confidential, sensitive and financial data of customers or existing users.

Q23.What is cowpatty?

Cowpatty is implemented on an offline dictionary attack against WPA/WPA2 networks utilizing PSK-based verification . Cowpatty can execute an enhanced attack if a recomputed PMK document is accessible for the SSID that is being assessed.

Q24.What is firewall?

A firewall is a network security system that allows or blocks network traffic as per predetermined security rules. These are placed on the boundary of trusted and distrusted networks.

Q25.What is scanning?

Scanning is a set of procedures for identifying hosts, ports and the services attached to a network. Scanning is a critical component for information gathering. It allows the hacker to create a profile on the site of the organization to be hacked. Types of scanning are: 

·        Port scanning 

·        Vulnerability scanning 

·        Network scanning

Q26.What is exploitation?

Exploitation is a part of programmed software or script that allows hackers to gain control over the targeted system/network and exploit its vulnerabilities. 

Q27.What is enumeration?

 Enumeration is the primary phase of ethical hacking that is information gathering. In this phase, the attacker builds an active connection with the victim and tries to gain as much information as possible to find out the weaknesses or vulnerabilities in the system and tries to exploit the system further.

Q28.What is SMTP?

Simple Networking Management Protocol is a protocol for remote monitoring and managing hosts, routers, and other devices on a network.

Q29.What are the different types of numeration in ethical hacking?

·        DNS enumeration 

·        SNMP enumeration 

·        NTP enumeration 

·        SMB enumeration 

·        Linux/Windows enumeration

Q30.What is the difference betweenVulnerability Scanning and Penetration testing?

Vulnerability Scanning

Penetration testing

Automated test

Manual test

Instructive method

Non-Instructive method

Detects and reports vulnerability

Exploits vulnerability and determines the type of access


Done once a year

Q31.What is Burpsuite?

Burp Suite is an integrated platform used for attacking net applications. It contains all the tools a hacker would need for attacking any application.

Q32.What is spoofing attack?

A spoofing attack is when a malicious party impersonates another device or user on a network so as to launch attacks against network hosts, steal data, unfold malware or bypass access controls.

Q33.Types of spoofing.

·        ARP Spoofing attack 

·        DNS Spoofing attack 

·        IP Spoofing attack

Q34.What is active reconnaissance?

In active reconnaissance, the attacker engages with the target system, usually conducting a port scan to find any open ports.

Q35.What is passive reconnaissance?

In passive reconnaissance, the attacker gains information regarding the targeted computers and networks while not actively participating with the systems. 

Q36.What is Cross-site scripting?

Cross site scripting is exploiting applications, servers or plug -ins by inserting malicious coding into a link which appears to be a trustworthy source. When users click on this link the malicious code will run as a part of the client’s web request and execute on the user’s computer, allowing attacker to steal information.

Q37.Types of Cross-site scripting

·        Non-persistent 

·        Persistent 

·        Server side versus DOM based vulnerability

Q38.What are the tools in Burp Suite?

·        Spider 

·        Scanner 

·        Proxy 

·        Repeater 

·        Intruder 

·        Comparer 

·        Sequencer 

·        Decoder

Q39.What is Defacement?

 The attacker replaces the organization website with a different page with an intention of defaming the organization. It contains the hackers name, images and may even include comments and background music.

Q40.What is CSRF?

 Cross site request forgery is an attack by a malicious website that will send a request to a web application that the user is already authenticated against from a different website.

Q41.What is Pharming?

The attacker compromises the Domain name system(DNS)servers or the user system so the traffic is directed to the site.

Q42.What is Footprinting?

The process of gathering user’s data and finding possible ways to penetrate into a target system. A hacker tries to collects all the information about the host,organization, network and people before penetrating into a network or a system.

Q43.Name the programming languages used for hacking?

·        C-language 

·        SQL 

·        Python 

·        C++ 

·        JavaScript 

·        Java 

·        Ruby 

·        Lisp 

·        Perl 

·        PHP

Q44.Define malware.

Any form virus with malicious intension which executes without consent of the user or administrator.

Q45.Define Spyware.

A type of malware that is used to spy on an individual or an organization by accessing the system, specific files, camera, voice or keylogging.

Q46.Explain what is Brute Force Hack?

Brute force hack is a technique for hacking password and get access to system and network resources, it takes much time, it needs a hacker to learn about JavaScripts. For this purpose, one can use tool name “Hydra”.

Q47.What are the types of computer based social engineering attacks?Explain what is Phishing?

·         Phishing

·         Baiting 

·         On-line scams

Phishing technique involves sending false e-mails, chats or website to impersonate real system with aim of stealing information from original website.

Q48.What is Mac Flooding?

Mac Flooding is a technique where the security of given network switch is compromised. In Mac flooding the hacker or attacker floods the switch with large number of frames, then what a switch can handle. This make switch behaving as a hub and transmits all packets at all the ports. Taking the advantage of this the attacker will try to send his packet inside the network to steal the sensitive information.

Q49.Explain what is DHCP Rogue Server?

A Rogue DHCP server is DHCP server on a network which is not under the control of administration of network staff. Rogue DHCP Server can be a router or modem. It will offer users IP addresses, default gateway, WINS servers as soon as user’s logged in. Rogue server can sniff into all the traffic sent by client to all other networks.

Q50.Explain how you can stop your website getting hacked?

By adapting following method, you can stop your website from getting hacked

• Sanitizing and Validating user’s parameters: By Sanitizing and Validating user parameters before submitting them to the database can reduce the chances of being attacked by SQL injection

• Using Firewall: Firewall can be used to drop traffic from suspicious IP address if attack is a simple DOS.


• Encrypting the Cookies: Cookie or Session poisoning can be prevented by encrypting the content of the cookies, associating cookies with the client IP address and timing out the cookies after some time.

• Validating and Verifying user input: This approach is ready to prevent form tempering by verifying and validating the user input before processing it.

• Validating and Sanitizing headers: This technique is useful against cross site scripting or XSS,this technique includes validating and sanitizing headers, parameters passed via the URL, form parameters and hidden values to reduce XSS attacks.

Q51.Explain what is NTP?

To synchronize clocks of networked computers, NTP (Network Time Protocol) is used. For its primary means of communication UDP port 123 is used. Over the public internet NTP can maintain time to within 10 milliseconds.

Q52.Explain what is MIB?

MIB (Management Information Base) is a virtual database. It contains all the formal description about the network objects that can be managed using SNMP. The MIB database is hierarchical and in MIB each managed objects is addressed through object identifiers (OID).

Q53.Mention what are the types of password cracking techniques?

• AttackBrute Forcing

• AttacksHybrid

• AttackSyllable

• AttackRule

Q54.What is data leakage? How will you detect and prevent it?

Data leak is nothing but data knowledge getting out of the organization in an unauthorized manner. Data will get leaked through numerous ways in which – emails, prints, laptops obtaining lost, unauthorized transfer of data to public portals, removable drives, pictures etc. There are varied controls which may be placed to make sure that the info doesn’t get leaked, many controls will be limiting upload on web websites, following an internal encryption answer, limiting the emails to the interior network, restriction on printing confidential data etc.

Q55.What is Cyber squatting in Cyber security?

Cyber squatting is registering, trafficking or using a domain name with malicious intent to profit from the trademark belonging to someone else.

Q56.Define adware.

A type of malware that will load and display some online or offline Ads in your computer system.

Q57.What is STRIDE?

Spoofing, Tampering, Reputation, Information disclosure, denial of service, Elevation of privilege.

Q58.Define asset.

An asset is any data, device, or other component of the environment that supports information related activities.

Q59.Define threat.

A threat represents a possible danger to the computer system. It represents something that an organization does not want to happen. A successful exploitation of vulnerability is a threat.

Q60.Define vulnerability.

Vulnerability is a flaw or a weakness inside the asset that could be used to gain unauthorized access to it.

Q61.Define risk.

A risk is defined as the impact (damage) resulting from the successful compromise of an asset.

Q62.Define Exploit.

An exploit is something that takes advantage of vulnerability in an asset to cause unintended or unanticipated behavior in a target system,which would allow an attacker to gain access to data or information.

Q63.What is Encryption?

Encryption is a process of converting plain text (normal message) to meaningless text (Cipher text).

Q64.What is Decryption?

Decryption us a process of converting meaningless text (Cipher text) back to its original form (plain text).

Q65.What is TCP/IP?

TCP/IP (Transmission control protocol/internet protocol) is the basic communication language or protocol of the internet. It can also be used as a communications protocol in a private network (either an intranet or an extranet).

Q66.What is OSI model?

The Open Systems Interconnection model(OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to their underlying internal structure and technology.

Q67.What are Network services ?

Network service is an application running on the system. A daemon server is the program that provides a network service. For example: 

·         File server 

·         Online game

·         Printing 

·         File sharing 

·         Directory services 

·         DNS

·         E-mail 

·         Instant messaging

Q68.What are Ports?

A port is essentially a way for 2 devices to connect using a specific protocol. Every service on a machine is assigned a port.

Q69.What is sniffing?

Sniffing is the process of monitoring the network traffic without consent of the user.

Q70.What is Packet sniffing?

Packet is the smallest unit of communication over a computer network. It is also called a block, a segment, a datagram or a cell. The act of capturing data packet across the computer network is called packet sniffing.

Q71.How to prevent packet sniffing?

• Encrypting data you send or receive. (HTTPS) 

• Using trusted Wi-Fi networks. 

• Scanning your network for dangers or issues. 

• Using VPN(Virtual private network).

Q72.What is ARP?

ARP poison routing (APR) or ARP cache poisoning or ARP Spoofing, a method of attacking an Ethernet LAN by updating the target computer’s ARP cache with both a forged ARP request and reply packets in an effort to change the Layer 2 Ethernet MAC address to one that the attacker can monitor.

Q73.What is GPS spoofing?

GPS spoofing is an attack in which a radio transmitter located near the target is used to interfere with a legitimate GPS signals. The attacker can transmit no data at all or could transmit inaccurate coordinates.

Q74.What is Email Spoofing?

Email spoofing is the forgery of an email header so that the message appears to have originated from someone or somewhere other than the actual source.

Q75.What is SSL?

• SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is a security protocol. 

• In this case, SSL is a standard security way for establishing an encrypted link between a server and a client. 

• SSL allows sensitive information such as credit card numbers and login credentials to be transmitted securely. 

• The browser and the server need what is called an SSL Certificate to be able to establish a secure connection. 

• Internet users have come to associate their online security with the lock icon that comes with an SSL-secured website or green address bar that comes with an Extended Validation SSL-secured website. SSL-secured websites also begin with https rather than http.

Q76.What are the types of sniffing?

Active sniffing: The traffic is locked and monitored, can be altered. It is used to sniff a switch-based network. It involves injecting the address resolution packets into a target network to switch on the content addressable memory table.

 Passive sniffing: The traffic is locked but can’t be altered. It works with hub devices, and traffic is sent to all the ports. Any traffic that is passing through the unbridged or non-switched network segment can be seen by all the machines on the segment.

Q77.What is data diddling?

The attack that involves altering raw data just before a computer processes it and then changing it back after the processing is completed. The electricity board faced similar problem of data diddling while the department was being computerized.

Q78.What is Salami attack?

The attack is normally prevalent in financial institutions or for the purpose of committing financial crimes. An important feature of this type of offence is that the alteration is so small that it would normally go unnoticed.

Q79.What are Logic bombs?

These are event dependent programs. This implies that these programs are created to do something only when a certain event (known as a trigger event) occurs. E.g. The Chernobyl virus.

Q80.What are Passive security attacks?

Passive attacks are in the nature of eavesdropping on, or monitoring of, transmissions. The goal of the opponent is to obtain information that is being transmitted. Two types of passive attacks are release of message contents and traffic analysis.

Q81.What are Active security attacks?

Active attacks involve some modification of the data stream or the creation of a false stream and can be subdivided into four categories: masquerade, replay, modification of messages, and denial of service.

Q82.What is Symmetric cryptography?

This form of encryption uses a secret key, called the shared secret, to scramble the data into unintelligible gibberish. The person on the other end needs the shared secret (key) to unlock the data—the encryption algorithm. You can change the key and change the results of the encryption. It is called symmetric cryptography because the same key is used on both ends for both encryption and decryption.

Q83.What is Asymmetric cryptography?

Asymmetric cryptography uses encryption that splits the key into two smaller keys. One of the keys is made public and one is kept private. You encrypt a message with the recipient’s public key. The recipient can then decrypt it with their private key. And they can do the same for you, encrypting a message with your public key so you can decrypt it with your private key.

Q84.What are the Encryption applications? Explain.

·         Hashes- Hashes are a special use of one-way functions to provide authentication and verification using encryption. A hash function takes a file and puts it through a function so that it produces a much smaller file of a set size. By hashing a file, you produce a unique fingerprint of it. This gives you a way to make sure that the file has not been altered in any way. 

·         Digital certificates- Digital certificates are the “signature” of the Internet commerce world. These use a combination of encryption types to provide authentication. They prove that who you are connecting to is really who they say they are. Simply put, a certificate is a “certification” of where the information is coming from. A certificate contains the public key of the organization encrypted with either its private key or the private key of a signing authority.

Q85.What are security mechanisms?

A security mechanism is any process (or a device incorporating such a process) that is designed to detect, prevent, or recover from a security attack. Examples of mechanisms are encryption algorithms, digital signatures, and authentication protocols.

Q86.What do you mean by MIB?

MIB stands for Management Information Base. It’s the network’s hierarchical virtual database that holds every data regarding the objects in the network. It’s used by remote monitoring 1 and SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol).

Q87.What are the different forms of DOS attacks?

• SYN attack 

• Smurf attack 

• Buffer overflow attack 

• Teardrop attack

 • Viruses

Q88.What is Footprinting?

Footprinting means uncovering or collecting all data about the targeted system or network before trying to acquire access.

Q89.What is scanning and their types?

Scanning is a collection of procedures for detecting the services, ports, and hosts attached to a system or network. It is one of the important components for gathering data. It enables the hacker to make a profile on the organization’s website to be hacked. There are three different types of scanning namely: 

• Vulnerability scanning

• Port scanning 

• Network scanning

Q90.Define Pentesting.

Penetration testing (or pentesting) is a security exercise where a cyber security expert attempts to find and exploit vulnerabilities in a computer system. The purpose of this simulated attack is to identify any weak spots in a system’s defence which attackers could take advantage of.

Q91.Explain Black box testing.

In Black-Box Testing the pentester will not have any knowledge whatsoever about the target(s) theyare going to hit. As a result, this kind of pentest can take a very long time to conduct, and automated tools are heavily relied upon. This kind of exercise is also known as a trial-and-error approach.

Q92.Explain White box testing.

White-Box Testing is also known as clear-box testing. In these instances, the pentester has advanced knowledge to some degree about the Web application that they are about to hit and its underlying source code.This kind of attack takes a shorter amount of time to launch when compared to the black-box test.

Q93.Explain Grey box testing.

Grey-Box Testing is a combination of both of black-box and white-box testing. This simply means that the pentester has some advanced knowledge on the targets they plan to attack. This kind of exercise requires both the use of automated and manual tools. When compared to the other two tests, this one offers the highest chances of discovering unknown security holes and weaknesses.

Q94.Abbreviate the acronyms used in Pentesting: 2FA,2S2D,2VPCP,3DES,3DESE,3DESEP.

• 2FA means “Two-Factor Authentication” 

• 2SD2D means “Double-Sided, Double Density” 

• 2VPCP means “Two-Version Priority Ceiling Protocol” 

• 3DES means “Triple Data Encryption Standard” 

• 3DESE means “Triple Data Encryption Standard Encryption” 

• 3DESEP means “Triple Data Encryption Standard Encryption Protocol”

Q95.What are the teams that can carry out a pentest?

• The Red Team 

• The Blue Team 

• The Purple Team

Q96.Explain Red team.

This group of pentesters acts like the actual cyber-attack. That means this team is the one that launches the actual threat, in order to break down the lines of defence of the business or corporation and attempt to further exploit any weaknesses that are discovered.

Q97.Explain Blue team.

These are the pentesters that act like the actual IT staff in an organization. Their main objective is to thwart any cyber-attacks that are launched by the Red Team. They assume a mindset of being proactive as well as maintaining a strong sense of security consciousness.

Q98.Explain Purple team.

This is a combination of both the Red Team and the Blue Team. For example, they have the security arsenal that is used by the Blue Team and possess a working knowledge of what the Red Team is planning to attack. It is the primary job of the Purple Team to help out both these teams out. Because of that, the pentesters of the Purple team cannot be biased in any regard and have to maintain a neutral point of view.

Q99.What are the main objectives of pentesting?

• To test adherence to the security policies that have been crafted and implemented by the organization.

• To test for employee pro-activeness and awareness of the security environment that they are in. 

• To fully ascertain how a business entity can face a massive security breach, and how quickly they react to it and restore normal business operations after being hit.

The Secrets of the Dark Web

top ethical hackers of india


The internet in the present days is been compared to many things: A fighter jet; A Nuclear Weapon; and most famously a series of tubes. As it is compared to an iceberg which takes down the whole yacht in minutes. The 10% of the network we call the internet is available in a normal search to the general public. Hidden below the virtual waterlines a surprising and secretive network Known as Deep web.

The Dark web can be only accessed with a special browser such as The Onion Router (TOR). the deep web is built on the basis of peer-to-peer connections, which allows to safely share files directly.

The Deep web has strong support to appeal to privacy advocates, who have taken huge advantage of the lack of tracing or identifying to the shield their anonymity from advertisers and officials alike. A former CIA agent Whistleblower Edward Snowden used the Deep web to collect much of the information that carried him into a worldwide discussion, and columnists around the world are coming to rely on it as a secure alternative to the public web searching for sensitive, confidential and dangerous information.

But the tight-lipped nature of the network has also made its own criminals of various stripes, Human organ trade, trafficking from illegal drugs to a stolen credit card to the child pornography. An online marketplace named as “THE SILK ROAD” driven by the internet currency Bitcoin. The subjected headlines in 2013 when the expertise succeeded in shutting it down. The site had its own prominence as the internet’s go-to destination for illegal sales of drugs, and its death spawned both a crowd-sourced documentary.

An organization such as AT&T, eager to examine, control activity and track within the misty borders, are working restlessly to bring light to the far end of the Deep Web. Government and law enforcement agencies, illegal trafficking, leaks, and concerned about privacy, are the unfamiliar positions striving to police the same wild and wooly neither world rely on for their own hidden operations. But secrets, scandals, and skulls will always find their path to the darkest parts of the web, and while destiny of the Deep Web may be as dark as its twisted triangles, it’s certain to remain a portion of internet wisdom for years to come.

Originate Of Deep Web

The term, “Deep web,” was stamped in 2001 by BrightPlanet, an Internet search Technology corporation that practices in searching deep web content.

Military sources of Deep Web – Like other sectors of the internet, the Deep Web began to build with the help of the U.S. military, which inquired a way to communicate with intelligence assets and Americans commissions abroad without being exposed. David Goldschlag, Michael Reed, and Paul Syverson mathematician at the Naval Research Laboratory started working on the idea of “ONION ROUTING” in 1995. Their research shortly developed into the Onion Router project, famously known as TOR, in 1997.

The U.S. Navy published the TOR code for the use of the public in 2004 and 2006 a group of developers built the TOR project and published the service currently in use.

Download TOR From Here https://www.torproject.org/download/download

Why Google Won’t Find Everything?

Present’s biggest search engines are much more capable than they were 20 years ago. They can foretell your search, perform multi-word queries, and serve billions and trillions of webpages.

Nevertheless, despite Google’s web intrepidity, it and other search engines have a very cramped view of what’s out there.

Search engines operate by “crawling” links on a website. If a site owner doesn’t want their page to be disclosed or to be found, it won’t introduce a direct link to that page. If there is no link on a web page, it can’t be crawled or indexed in Google’s extensive search library. As the search engine won’t display the result.


The Good, Bad, And Downright Ugly Of The Dark Web

Because the TOR network permits allow users to window-shop

anonymously, it’s used by secret services, activists, law enforcement, whistleblowers, researchers, and users who are forbidden from Internet access.

WikiLeaks is an ill-famed Dark Web site that permits whistleblowers to anonymously upload detailed information is an Assange.

Even the most famous site Facebook has a Dark Web site. Last October, the social media monster began TOR private services so users could avoid bypass monitoring or censorship.

Anonymity, however, tends to have a dark side. The TOR network can also be used to shield the sensitive information of users involved in criminal activity.


Types Of Illegal Operations You Could Find On The TOR Network

  • Unlicensed Weapons
  • Illegal Hacking Guides and Pirated Software
  • Pornography
  • Drugs
  • Sales of stolen Credit cards and their information
  • The illegal practice of trading on the stock exchange
  • Hiring trained Killers
  • Gambling
  • Money laundering
  • Sale of fake currency


The Silk Road

One of the Popular-known origins of treacherous activity on the Dark Web is “THE SILK ROAD”, also known as the “Amazon of Drugs”. The site marketed high-grade, illegal drugs. Until it was completely shut down by the FBI. Growth, Agora Marketplace, and Nucleus Marketplace are three added examples of famous black market sites.

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October 2013, FBI arrested Ross Ulbricht under the commands of being the sites pseudonymous originator “Dread Pirate Roberts”. On 6 November 2013, Silk Road 2.0 has been introduced, managed by the former administrator of Silk Road. This too was shut down and the operator was arrested on 6 November 2014 as a portion of the so-called “Operation Onymous”. Ross Ulbricht was adjudged of eight charges related to Silk Road in the U.S. Federal court in Manhattan and was convicted to life prison without the possibility of parole

A Site Similar To The Silk Road

The Farmer’s Market was a Tor Similar to Silk Road, but they never used their mood of payments using bitcoins, rather they used PayPal and The Western Union allowed permitted the law enforcement to track the route of their payments and it was consequently shut down by FBI in 2012. Many other sites already existed when silk road was locked down and it was predicted that these would take down the market that Silk Road earlier overlooked. Sites like “Atlantis”, shut down in September 2013, and Project Black Flag, concluding in October 2013, each robbed their user’s bitcoins. October 2013, site named Black Market Reloaded and was shut down temporarily due to the site’s source code was being leaked. The market of many Silk Road followers was reported by the Economist in May 2015.

Kinds Of Web

The Surface Web: Web pages that are shown up on any normal search engines outcomes. And the given search result can be found in Google search, then its 100% sure that it belongs to Surface Web The Deep Web: Any search or content which cannot be displayed in a normal search engine can’t access. Deep Web pages include all sensitive information protected by a login, a page that doesn’t have a link or a website database.

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The Dark Web: A small, unknown corner of the Deep Web that is hidden willfully from normal search. And it can be accessed by a special Web browser for users to access it.


Do’s And Dont’s In A Dark Web.


  • Make sure Tor is kept up to date
  • Create a new identity when necessary
  • Use a VPN alongside Tor
  • Consider running a Tor relay
  • Use Tor for anonymous email


  • Go overboard with browser add-ons
  • Share your real email address
  • Search the web using Google
  • Maximize the Tor window
  • Use Tor for torrenting


Few Links To Access Dark Web

Name              Link                     Description
1. Dream Market            http://6khhxwj7viwe5xjm.onion/                   Drugs, Digital  Goods 
2.Silk Road                http://silkroad7rn2puhj.onion/                   Drugs, Weapons 
3.Valhalla                 http://valhallaxmn3fydu.onion/register/DpXB      Drugs 
4.WallStreet Market        http://wallstyizjhkrvmj.onion/signup             Drugs 


Finally, As The Wording Says

The Deeper You’ll go, The Darker it’ll get

Into one’s secret

Into the Space

Into the Web (Internet): One Universe One Rule ……

Phishing Attack | Every Thing you need to know about Phishing

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What Is Phishing?

phishing is a social engineering attack to trick you into revealing your personal and confidential information. It is also a common type of cyber attack. The term phishing is commonly used to describe this artifice. There is also a good reason for the use of ph instead of f. The earliest hackers were known as phreaks. Phreaking refers to the exploration or experimenting and study of telecommunication. Phreaks and hackers have always been closely related. The ph spelling was used to link phishing frauds with these underground communities.


History Of Phishing And Case Studies.

A phishing technique was first ever described in detail in a paper presentation delivered to 1987
international HP user group. the first ever known phishing direct attack was attempted against a
payment system affected E-gold in June 2001 which was followed up by a “post-9/11 id check” shortly after the attack on the World Trade Center on September 11 which made a huge noise. And followed by several attacks.
The term phishing can be traced in the early 1990s via American online or AOL. where a group of hackers banded together called themselves as “The Warez Community” are considered as the first hackers. In early fraudulence, they developed an algorithm which allowed them to generate fake credit card numbers. which they would later use to attempt to make phony AOL accounts.

Case Study 1

wanna cry shuts downs business in 180 countries. it is remembered as one of the worst cyber attacks in history. This ransomware attack is suspected of having impacted more than 2,30,000 around 150

countries. The debate is still on the top whether the attack was from a suspected e-mail id or the
other phishing method used.

Case Study 2

Google docs hacked over 3 million people stopped working worldwide on May 2017 where phisher was
caught sending fraudulent emails inviting to edit Google Docs. on opening the invitations they were
brought to a tricky third-party app, where the phishers were able to access peoples Gmail accounts.

Case Study3

Facebook and Google took for $100 million after the month of this incident U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) arrested Lithuanian man for allegedly stealing of $100 million from the two top know companies of U.S. the phishers targeted attack successfully by using phishing email by inducing employees into wiring the money to overseas bank accounts under his control.


Types Of Phishing   

  • Deceptive Phishing
  • Spear phishing
  • Whaling
  • Pharming

Deceptive Phishing:

Deceptive phishing is one of the most used phishing methods. In this method, the attackers attempt to gather all the confidential information from the victims. These attackers use the gathered information to steal or to launch other attacks. A fake email is been generated from a bank asking you to click a link and verify your account details.

Spear Phishing:

Spear phishing basically targets individuals instead of a large group. Attackers usually

a victim on social media and other websites so that they can customize their communication and appear more realistic Spear phishing is one of the most commonly used or the first step used to penetrate a company’s defenses and carry out an attack research their


whaling is a method used to attack directly senior or important individuals at an organization or a company. These attackers often spend a huge amount of time on target by gathering information. once an opportune moment is gained they launch an attack or steal login credentials. whaling attack is
only targeted on high-level executives who are able to access the confidential part of the company’s
information. This method is also known as CEO fraud.


pharming is as similar as a phishing attack. here the victims are directed to bogus sites through fictitious emails and to reveal their sensitive information. But in pharming, the victim does not even have to click on the link in the email. the attacker can easily infect the user’s computer or the web server and redirect it to a fake site even if the correct URL is entered.                                       

Prevention Of Phishing

  • Keep informed of phishing technique
  • Think before you click
  • Install an anti-phishing toolbar
  • Verify sites security
  • Check online account regularly
  • Keep your browser up to date

Keep Informed Of Phishing Technique:

modern phishing technique is being developed in the upcoming days. without the knowledge, you can easily fall for a phishers trap. to avoid it get regularly updated on the phishing scams as early as possible. By all these awareness u will be at a much lower risk of becoming a prey to an animal. for IT users ongoing security awareness training and simulated phishing is highly recommended for the safety of a top organization.

Think Before You Click:

It’s fine to click on a link that is on trusted sites. but clicking in a link that appears in a random email with a grammatical error and with different links is not a smart move. A phishing email may claim to be from atop institutions, company, organization etc. it may look same as the original website. but the email may ask u to fill the information through which they can access all your personal details. So think before you click.

Install An Anti-Phishing Toolbar:

Most of the internet browser can be customized with anti-phishing toolbars. This helps with a quick check of the phishing threats that you are visiting and compare them with the list of the phishing websites. if the enter or click on a phishing site or link it alerts us about it. this is one the protective layer of anti-phishing scams.

Verify Sites Security:

It’s natural to share a little sensitive financial information online. as long as we make sure that the website is secured. however to be on a safer side check the site’s URL begins with “https” and a closed lock icon near the address bar. If you are alerted by an anti-phishing tool that the site contains any malicious files, do not enter the site and never download any files from malicious websites or emails. By using a cracked software it may lead u to a phishing website which offers low-cost products. by purchasing at these websites the user financial details like debit card details etc can be accessed by cybercriminals

Check Online Account Regularly:

if you don’t visit your online account frequently or for a while, there are chances of a phishers field day with it. so it is advisable to check your online account every now and then and to have a strong password. to prevent bank phishing and credit card phishing scams, you need to personally ensure that there is no fraudulent transaction happening without your knowledge.

Keep Your Browser Up To Date:

security updates are released frequently for all popular browsers. they are released to fix the security loopholes and to face the upcoming threats. regular updates can keep you safe from phishing and other kinds of cyber attacks.

These are the few important steps to be followed to prevent yourself from phishing attacks

Top 5 Indian Ethical Hackers in 2022

Here are the Top 5 Ethical Hackers in India 


1. Vivek Ramachandran :

Vivek Ramchandra -Top Ethical Hacker in India
 Vivek Ramachandran

Vivek Ramachandran a top Ethical hacker in India, he is also security researcher, cyber security specialist and the founder of Pentester Academy. He is a B.tech graduate from IIT Guwahati and an advisor to the computer science department’s security lab. His field of expertise includes ethical hacking, cyber security, network security, wireless security, exploit researcher. Computer forensics, compliance, and e-Governance, compliance. He discovered the Caffe Latte attack, broke WEP cloaking and created Chellam, the world’s first Wi-Fi Firewall. He has written many books which are published worldwide in mid of 2011- Few of his books are  ” Wireless Penetration Testing ” and ” The Metasploit Megaprimer”. 

Vivek started SecurityTube.net in 2007, Youtube which holds the largest collection of security research videos on the web to learn ethical hacking and cyber security. He is also an internationally acclaimed speaker and has spoken in hundreds of conferences worldwide. Some of his known and renowned talks include – “WEP Cloaking Exposed” at Defcon 15, USA, Las Vegas and “The Caffe Latte Attack” at Toorcon, San Diego, USA. Both of these conferences talks were covered extensively by international media BBC Online, The Register, Mac world, Network World, Computer Online etc. He also conducts in-person trainings in the US, Europe and Asia.

In 2006, Microsoft announced Vivek as one of the winners of the Microsoft Security Shootout Contest held in India among an estimated 65,000 participants. The competition was focused on finding leading Security Experts in India. Vivek was also rewarded a Team Achievement Award by Cisco Systems for his contribution to the Port security modules in the catalyst 6500 series of switches and 802.1x. These are the high-end security features used.

Vivek’s work on wireless security has been quoted in BBc online,Infoworld, The register, MacWorld, IT World Canada etc. He was recommended in the evening edition of CBS5 in the US where he coached the general public on the dangers of using WEP in wireless. He also worked as Cyber security consultant at Fortune 500 companies in the field of Information Security. The Caffe Latte Attack discovered by Vivek was covered by CBS5 news. Vivek is now a part of Wireless Security textbooks and various other wireless Penetration testing tools.

2.Trishneet Arora :


Trishneet Arora is an ethical hacker, entrepreneur who found a TAC Security, a Cyber Security company that provides protection to corporations against data theft and network vulnerabilities. Some of TAC’s clients include the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), Punjab Police, Gujarat Police, Reliance Industries Limited, Amul, Ralson (India) Ltd, Avon Cycles Ltd, MNCs from Dubai and UK. 

TAC Security provides penetration testing and vulnerabilities assessment services. According to Trishneet Arora, there has been an enormous increase in the number of attacks against many portals of many international companies. TAC Security raised funds in 2016 for Pre-series funding from Indian investors Vijay Kedia, Earlier to this TAC Security also had approached Subider Khurana former Vice president of Cognizant on its board. By the mid of 2017 TAC was also recognized by Vice President of IBM, William May, and Singapore based former regional sales director of Imperva. Arora has also written many books on Cyber Security, Web Defence and ethical hacking. Arora was named 30 under 30 2018 Asian list.

In 2014, Trishneet  received a State Award by the Chief Minister of Punjab, Mr. Prakash Singh Badal. Following which he was appointed as the IT advisor of Punjab Police Academy. In the same year deputy Chief Minister of Punjab Sukhbir Singh Badal released his second book “Hacking Talk with Trishneet Arora”. In 2018 he was awarded Leaders of Tomorrow by St. Gallen Symposium, Forbes 30 Under 30 by Forbes Asia, Entrepreneur 35 Under 35 by Entrepreneur (magazine), In 2017 he was awarded News Maker of 2017 by Man’s World (magazine), The 50 Most Influential Young Indians by GQ Magazine so on, Arora has won many more awards in a row.

Recently, he received the Punjab Icon Award in Mumbai alongside Virender Sehwag, Malvinder Mohan Singh, RS Sodhi,  Ayushmann Khurrana and Surveen Chawla.


Ankit Fadia
Ankit Fadia

Ankit Fadia is an author, speaker, television host, and an “ethical hacker”, his field of specialization is OS and Networking based tips and tricks, proxy website and lifestyle.

In 2008 Ankit started a television show on MTV India called “What The Hack”, Which he co-hosted with Jose Covaco. This show was mainly about how to make good use of the internet and answered people’s technology-related questions. In 2013, Ankit started with a YouTube channel “Geek On The Loose”, in collaboration with PING networks, where he started giving technology related tips and tricks.

 After Ankit’s first book “The Unofficial Guide to Computer Hacking” came in the limelight, Ankit became popular among the corporate clients in India as well as on the Conference speaking panels. He published more books on Computer Security, started giving seminars across schools and colleges in India. Ankit started providing his own computer security training courses, including the “Ankit Fadia Certified Ethical Hacker” programme in coordination with Reliance World.

 A number of his achievements have been disputed by others within the cyber security industry, and he was awarded a “Security Charlatan” of the year at DEF CON20 in 2017. Ankit won the IT Youth Award from the Singapore Computer Society in 2005, Global Ambassador for Cyber Security (National Telecom Awards 2011), The Global Shaper from World Economic Forum and also Attrition.org surveyed his alleged credential and added him to their Security Charlatans list. He is also been accused of plagiarism in his work.


Sunny Vaghela
 Sunny Vaghela

Sunny Vaghela founder of Tech defense labs, was graduated from Nirma University. Sunny Vaghela is ethical hacker who exposed the loopholes in SMS and Calls in mobile network at the age of 18. He also launched websites where the complaint against cybercrime was registered and solved.

Sunny been ethical hacker he also finds loopholes like “Cross-site scripting” and “session Hijacking” in popular websites one among them is “www.orkut.com” at his age of 19. As Ethical Hacker he solved many challenging cases of cyber-crimes for Ahmedabad crime branch including credit card Fraud cases, Biggest Data theft cases, Phishing cases, Orkut fake profile cases, etc.

Sunny Vaghela has also been leading training and consulting team at Techdefence for last 7 years. More than 60000 people are trained under Sunny from 650+ Educational Institution under HackTrack & CCSE verticals of Techendence. He also assists Financial Institutions, E-Commerce, Logistic Industry, and Media.



Benild Joseph
 Benild Joseph

Benild Joseph is a renowned Ethical Hacker and also TEDx Speaker , Security Researcher with definitive experience in the field of computer security in India. 

He is a renowned speaker at security conferences in India and abroad. He was a speaker at The APWG Vienna Symposium on Global Cybersecurity Awareness Messaging at the United Nations. Benild works  with various corporate companies, law enforcement agencies and government organizations. He has also worked on various security projects at International Cyber Threat Task Force (CTTF) and Cyber Security Forum Initiative (CSFI ).

Benild Joseph has discovered critical vulnerabilities in popular websites by using his ethical hacking skills to find vulnerabilities including Deutsche Telekom, Tesco, Yahoo, Facebook, Blackberry, Sony Pictures and AstraZeneca. He holds many patents in ethical hacking, cyber forensic and information security domain.

Benild is the author of CCI-book written for law enforcement agencies in India and is also profiled in Ethical Hacking the Hacker-book written by Roger Grimes along with Mark Russinovich, Bruce Schneier, Kevin Mitnick and World’s best white hat hackers and is also listed among the Top 10 Ethical Hackers in India by Microsoft Social Forum and Silicon India Magazine. He has been interviewed by various TV channels and Newspapers where he has shared his experiences relating to cyber security and cyber crimes.