Everything you wanna know about CEH v12


Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH) – INTRODUCTION ‘To beat a hacker, you need to think like one. EC Council
Your ability to master hacking tools and tactics is aided by a Certified Ethical Hacker(CEH) certification. To maintain strong security systems, you will learn how to scan,
test, secure, and even hack. CEH in cybersecurity is a good place to start your career.
Given how difficult the CEH exam is to pass, having this certification can help you gain respect across the globe in the field of cybersecurity. We acknowledge your
commitment and effort in clearing the CEH certification test.
One of the most prominent and sought-after professional certifications offered by thereputable International Council of E-Commerce Consultants is Certified Ethical
Hacker (CEH), also known as White Hat Hacker (EC Council). Since the advent of
the internet, network security has been a top priority. Ethical hackers act as good Menand defend computer systems from harmful intrusions, in contrast to typical hackersor bad guys who use networks for unethical or malicious purposes.
A Certified Ethical Hacker is a knowledgeable expert who examines the weaknessesand lawfully breaks into the network, exactly like any illegal hacker does, while guarding it against potential outside threats.
The Evolution of Ethical Hacking
Ethical hacking has its roots in the ancient Indian strategy game Chaturanga, which incomparable to Chess. The US Navy began using war games as a training tool in 1889.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology was the site of the first hacking incident in the 1960s. The US Air Force performed its first ethical hack in 1974 to assess the operating system’s security issues. In 1985, the inaugural edition of the e-zine Hacksaws released by and for hackers.
The past of ethical hacking tells us that being a hacker wasn’t always a bad thing. The term “ethical hacking” actually first appeared in the typical sense at the esteemed Massachusetts Institute of Technology, according to the history of the term (MIT).
Although IBM Vice President John Patrick coined the term “ethical hacking” in 1995,
the idea has existed for much longer.
Engineering students used the term “hacking” during the 1960s to describe the processof looking for new ways to optimise machines and systems so that they operated moreeffectively. The history of ethical hacking indicates that some of the world’s brightest
individuals engaged in hacking as a creative project.
About EC-Council
The greatest technical certification body for cyber security is called EC-Council, orInternational Council of E-Commerce Consultants. They have offices in 145 nationsand are the creators of renowned courses like the License Penetration Testing(Practical), Computer Hacking Forensics Investigator (C|HFI), Certified SecurityAnalyst (ECSA), and Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH). Over 200,000 informationsecurity experts have been taught and certified, and their work has changed thethinking of many organization throughout the world when it comes to cyber security.
The certification programmes have received support from numerous governmental
organization, including the US Federal Government through the Montgomery GI Bill,
the US Government National Security Agency (NSA), and the Committee on National
Security Systems. These organization include the National Security Agency and theCommittee on National Security Systems (CNSS).
Albuquerque, New Mexico serves as the head office for EC Council.
Why CEH?
The ability to attack system networks’ uncertainties and weak spots as well as
safeguard them against unauthorised hacking is offered by CEH Certification. Thiscertification aids in giving crucial information about the entire history of an exploit.
By demonstrating that penetration tester’s skill sets meet industry requirements, aCEH certification helps them land their ideal positions. Here are a few explanationsfor why obtaining CEH certification is essential.
1. Makes you ideally adapted for the profession
A Certified Ethical Hacker certification verifies your penetration testing abilitieswhen you are planning a career in cybersecurity and ensures that they comply withaccepted industry standards.
2. Fulfill Your Salary Expectations.
In an industry, hiring certified specialists is simple because there are little formal
training requirements. Organizations in the cybersecurity industry appreciatecandidates with in-depth understanding of the sector, which leads to numerous
chances and a high income for certified ethical hackers.
3. Maps to the Industry Structure
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Office of the Director ofNational Intelligence, and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) together releasedthe NICE/NIST industry framework, which the CEH exam syllabus for obtaining aCEH certification maps to (ODNI).
4. Enhances Job Security
Since cybercrime is expanding so quickly, there is a continuing need for experiencedcybersecurity specialists.
The usual cost to recover after a hack is $690,000 for small firms and more than $1million for a medium-sized business, thus investing in cybersecurity resources ismerely profitable.
An industry-recognized certification will enable you to prove your expertise as aknowledgeable IT security specialist in this growing market and secure your
Benefits of CEH Certification
>A person’s security career should advance. The CEH certification is appropriate forthe person if they can handle the job. One learns everything there is to know about
cyber security and becomes an expert in its application.
>Improves knowledge of vulnerabilities and hazards. Cyber-criminals utilize a varietyof methods to launch attacks and exploit any weaknesses. However, one can expandand increase their knowledge of risks and security by preparing for the CEH exam.
>Boost someone’s pay by a certain amount. When a person holds a certified ethical
hacker certification, his or her salary in an organization increases. It also helps toincrease job security.
>A professional with a certified ethical hacker (CEH) certification is highly helpful inany firm where security is a priority since it makes the holder a master of cybersecurity. Therefore, an organisation has a huge need for expertise in this field:
 System protection, data security, and other information
 Avoid causing harm and other cyberthreats
 Control network testing.
 Sensitize people to security issues
1. C|EH inToday’sWorld
2. Hear from our Certified Members
3. Market Changes andStudent Expectations
4. CEH v12 Introduction
5. Key updates v11 to v12
6. Learn, Certify,Engage, Compete Framework
7. Your new C|EH Story
8. C|EH v12 Packages
9. Operations &Logistics – Migrating to v12
C|EH Continues to dominate
C|EH Relevance to Industry
Job Roles:
95% improved organization security after C|EH.
97% rate the program as directly relevant to current,realworld threats.

SKILLS LEARNED IN C|EH SUPPORT20+ CYBERSECURITY JOB ROLES Mid-level Information Assurance -Security Audit
 Cybersecurity Auditor
 Security Administrator
 IT Security Administrator
 Cyber Défense Analyst
 Vulnerability Assessment Analyst
 Warning Analyst
 Information Security Analyst 1
 Security Analyst L1
 Infosec Security Administrator
 Cybersecurity Analyst L1, L2, & L3
 Network SecurityEngineer
 SOC Security Analyst
 Security Analyst
 Network Engineer
 Senior Security Consultant
 Information Security Manager
 Senior SOC Analyst
 Jr Penetration Tester
 Solution Architect
 Cybersecurity Consultant
 Security Compliance Analyst

Ethical Hacking Training Just Got Better with Gamification
C|EH v12 provides the industry’s most comprehensive program with training, certification, engage,and competition allwrapped into one program that can change the trajectory of one’s career incybersecurity. This one-of-a-kind certification provides comprehensive training in ethical hackingwith hands-on training, labs, assessment, mock engagement (practice), and global hackingcompetitions to ensure that students are at the top of their game.
INTRODUCING OUR NEW C|EH LEARNING FRAMEWORKC|EH v12 Goes Beyond Providing Training and Certification
Builds cyber careers
Creates highly skilled professionals
Helps them grow from initial interest to their first Ethical Hacking Engagement!
With C|EH v12, offer your customers a one-stop solution for cyber skill development!


Formjacking in a nutshell!

What is Formjacking?

As cybercriminals insert malicious JavaScript code into a website, they gain control of the form page’s features and gather confidential user details. Formjacking is a technique for stealing credit card numbers and other personal information from payment forms on websites’ checkout pages.

What is Supply Chain?

A supply chain is a network that connects a business with its vendors in order to manufacture and deliver a particular commodity to the end-user. Different events, individuals, organizations, knowledge, and services are all part of this network. The supply chain frequently refers to the measures involved in getting a commodity or service from its initial state to its final destination.

Companies build supply chains in order to lower prices and stay competitive in the marketplace.

Since an integrated supply chain results in reduced prices and a quicker manufacturing cycle, supply chain management is critical.

How does it work?

The malicious JavaScript code gathers the entered information after a website user enters their credit card details on an e-commerce payment page and clicks “send.” The cyberthieves built malicious JavaScript code that can capture information such as credit card numbers, home and company addresses, phone numbers, and more. The information is then passed to the attacker’s servers until it has been collected. The cybercriminals will then profit from the knowledge by selling it on the dark web or using it for personal benefit. Cybercriminals may then exploit this information for identity theft or credit card fraud.

Why is Formjacking done?

Cybercriminals may use credit card information to make legitimate or unauthorized transactions or sell it to other cybercriminals on the dark web.

In reality, by trading the data of only 10 payment cards per website, cybercriminals will make up to $2.2 million per month! The British Airways Formjacking attack exposed the identities of nearly 380,000 payment cards. This means the cybercriminals may have made a profit of more than $17 million!

What is the one reason why there is a growth in Formjacking?

Hackers and cybercriminals, like any other worker, search for the most effective way to complete their tasks. One of the reasons for the recent rise in Formjacking, in which credit card details and other personal information were stolen from e-commerce forms using illegal JavaScript.

What are Magecarts?

Magecart is a collection of malicious hacker groups that attack online shopping cart services, most often the Magento scheme, in order to steal credit card details from customers. A supply chain attack is what this is called. The aim of these attacks is to hack a VAR or systems integrator’s third-party applications or infect an industrial process without IT’s knowledge.

Is your website in danger?

Supply chain attack is a mode that makes Formjacking strategies easier to implement. If you know what supply chain attacks are? It is not, contrary to popular belief, an assault on a supply chain. Supply chain attacks, also known as third-party attacks or value-chain attacks, are common when a third party has access to the company’s records. This type of attack entails a third party with access to the data/systems infiltrating your organization’s systems.

So, if you’re going to bring in third parties to help you with your company, be careful! In reality, attackers used a supply chain attack strategy to carry out the Ticketmaster Formjacking attack. Magecart attackers gained access to the website and inserted the code into their payment tab.

Remember that if companies with access to the network do not have robust cyber defense policies, you are vulnerable to an attack!

Steps to take to prevent your website from getting Formjacked

Formjacking attacks are difficult to spot. The victim may be unaware of the website compromise so it continues to function normally. As a result, being aware of such threats and implementing strong cybersecurity measures will help prevent Formjacking attacks at bay.

Here are several suggestions for avoiding Formjacking attacks.

  1. Maintain the highest level of privacy possible When developing or changing your website, make sure the software for your website and web apps are developed in the safest and stable way possible. To monitor new product upgrades, use small test conditions.
  2. Run a vulnerability scan on your website on a regular basis.

Regularly check the website for vulnerabilities and malicious codes with ‘white hat hacker’ teams and/or comprehensive vulnerability resources. To prevent malicious actors from obtaining access to the websites, conduct routine website, and network penetration testing.

  1. Verify that the third-party vendors are employing robust cybersecurity measures.

As mentioned in the preceding chapter, good cyber protection for your company is insufficient. You must also ensure that third parties who have access to your website and business-critical information are secured in the same way.

  1. Keep an eye on outbound traffic.

Monitoring the website’s outbound traffic with strict firewalls and other security mechanisms is also a smart idea. It will warn you if traffic is being directed in a suspicious direction.

Unfortunately, Formjacking criminals are becoming more skilled and advanced every day. They can now carry out such attacks with greater finesse thanks to the addition of a secondary code that scans the website for debugger software. This means they know how to keep an eye out for the police when committing the robbery!

How can Texial help?

Texial is a private cyber and digital forensics facility. Its cutting-edge digital forensics facility is equipped with cutting-edge digital and cyber forensics software and facilities. Texial’s roster of best-in-class forensics specialists and data security professionals also allows it to remain one step ahead of the competition in this field.

Texial has a wide range of cyber and digital forensics resources, including malware investigations, risk assessments, data management, and information security, among other things. It also provides training on numerous cyber protection programs to law enforcement authorities, educational institutions, and businesses.

The New-age dangerzone: Cyberwarfare

What is Cyberwarfare?

Cyberwarfare is a form of machine or network-based conflict in which a nation-state targets another nation-state for political reasons. Nation-state actors aim to disrupt the operations of organisations or nation-states in these forms of attacks, especially for political or military reasons, as well as cyber espionage.

History of cyberwarfare

In 2010, the world’s perception of cyberwar was permanently altered. It all began when VirusBlokAda, a Belarusian security company, discovered a strange piece of malware that caused its antivirus programme to crash.

Although the attack began in Ukraine, it soon spread across the world. While the precise amount of damage caused by this attack is still unknown, it is expected to be in the billions of dollars.

Motivation behind cyberwarfare

Cyberwarfare is the use of digital threats to invade a nation, causing similar damage to traditional warfare and/or disabling critical information systems. Experts disagree about what constitutes cyber warfare and whether such a thing exists.

Cyber attacks on companies are often planned and inspired by monetary gain. Reaching a social or political argument – for example, by hacktivism – can be another inspiration. Spying on rivals for undue advantage is an example of espionage.

Types of Cyberwarfare

Spionage is a form of espionage


PRISM is a secret monitoring scheme in which the National Security Agency (NSA) receives consumer data from companies like Facebook and Google.

Traditional spying, like cyber-espionage, is not an act of war, but both are often thought to be underway between major powers. Despite this presumption, certain events can result in severe conflicts between nations, and they are often referred to as “attacks.”


Computers and satellites that coordinate other operations are sensitive system elements that could cause equipment to fail. Military networks, such as C4ISTAR modules that handle commands and messages, maybe hacked or maliciously replaced if they are compromised. Infrastructure such as power, water, diesel, communications, and transportation may all be affected. The civilian domain is also at risk, according to Clarke, who points out that cyber breaches have now extended beyond compromised credit card numbers, and that future targets include the electric power grid, trains, and the stock exchange.

A denial-of-service (DoS) attack is a form of cyber-attack that

A denial-of-service (DoS) or distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack is an attempt to make a computer or network resource inaccessible to its intended users in computing. DoS attackers also target high-profile web servers, such as banks, credit card payment gateways, and even root nameservers, for their attacks. To carry out these large-scale attacks, DoS attacks frequently use internet-connected computers with insecure security mechanisms. DoS threats aren’t only limited to computer-based methods; strategic physical attacks on networks can be almost as damaging.

Grid of electrical power

The United States federal government acknowledges that the electric power grid is vulnerable to cyberwarfare.

  The US Department of Homeland Security works with businesses to find bugs in control device networks and to help them improve their security. As the next generation of “smart grid” networks is created, the federal government is still working to ensure that protection is built-in.  According to current and former national security officials, rumours emerged in April 2009 that China and Russia had compromised the US electricity grid and left behind automated systems that could be used to sabotage the infrastructure.

Publicity stunts

Cyber propaganda is an attempt to manipulate public opinion by controlling information in whatever shape it can take. It’s a kind of psycholEconomic upheaval. WannaCry and Petya (NotPetya) ransomware attacks in 2017 caused widespread disturbances in Ukraine, as well as in the United Kingdom’s National Health Service, pharmacy firm Merck, shipping firm Maersk, and other organisations around the world. These attacks are classified as cybercrimes, especially financial crimes since they have a negative impact on a business or entity like Russia. “This is a form of system warfare that aims to delegitimize the political and social framework that our military’s strength is based on.”

Unexpected cyber-attack

Scholars have questioned the concept of a “cyber Pearl Harbor,” drawing parallels to the historical act of war. Others also coined the phrase “cyber 9/11” to emphasise the nontraditional, asymmetric, or unconventional nature of cyber activity against a regime.

Conclusions and Future directions

Cyber protection is a multifaceted issue. There is a large body of literature on the subject that discusses how it is linked to a variety of issues that lead to the advancement of cybersecurity research and practice.

What Is Cyber Warfare’s Next Step?

Both cyber-attacks are now organised and coordinated by humans. Artificial intelligence is likely to formulate and carry out these tasks in the future. AI programmes will be able to analyse and hack into safe systems quicker than humans, and they will be able to interrupt systems on a much larger scale than ever.

Blockchain can be one of the most effective ways to protect from cyber-attacks. It will keep networks safe and defend data from intruders. Cyber-attacks are expected to become more frequent in the coming years, and we will almost certainly see a full-scale cyber-warfare incident in the next decade.

Your Cyber Security Partner, Texial

Texial will help you protect your organisation from advanced and nuanced cyber attacks from beginning to end. It is a private forensic lab with a presence throughout India.


Texial has hand-picked cyber and remote forensic experts as well as a state-of-the-art forensics laboratory. It has both the knowledge and the practise of supporting organisations in identifying and mitigating cyber risks. Texial aims to remain one step ahead of the competition in keeping a nation “cyber secure” by staying up to date with the latest in technologies and the current threat environment.

Are you afraid that you are the next Cyberbully victim? Understand Cyberbullying and Anticyberbullying laws.

What is Cyberbullying anyway?

Bullying that occurs over digital platforms such as mobile phones, laptops, and tablets is known as cyberbullying. Cyberbullying can take place offline in social media, forums, or gaming where people can access, engage in, or exchange information, or online in social media, forums, or gaming where people can view, participate in, or share content.


With the growth of social media over the past two decades, cyberbullying has been a major problem. It no longer only affects adolescents, but also teenagers and adults. Let us go back in time to investigate the origins of cyberbullying. Since internet-connected personal computers became readily accessible on the mass market in the 1990s, cyberbullying began. The number of incidents has risen, with social media currently being blamed for 92 per cent of cyberbullying attacks. Megan Meier’s case from 2007 is one of the first known cases of cyberbullying.

Cases of Cyberbullying for the First Time:

Megan Meier: In 2007, a 13-year-old girl died sadly because of online abuse. A group of neighbours harassed the young girl by creating a false profile called Josh Evans for the sole intention of tormenting her.

Is Cyber Bullying a crime?

The repercussions for cyberbullies vary depending on the situation. Many incidents of cyberbullying are punished as harassment. Some lawsuits end up in civil court, while others can result in felony charges and conviction for hate crimes, impersonation, stalking, cyberbullying, and Computer Fraud and Abuse Act offences (CFAA).


Different states with their own codes for cyberbullying in comparison to the broader regulations. Stopbullying.gov has a state-by-state map that highlights the laws in each state.


So where do we draw the line between what is and isn’t cyber bullying? What are some of the offences that can be committed as a result of cyberbullying?

Stomp Out Bullying has compiled a list of allegedly illegal ways of cyberbullying:


Harassment, particularly when it is motivated by a person’s gender, race, or other protected characteristics.

Threatening with violence

Threatening to kill

Calling and texting obscene and harassing people

Sexting Sextortion, or sexual harassment, is a form of sexting.

pornography involving children.

Stalking an individual

Hate crimes are crimes committed for a specific reason.

Taking a picture of someone in an area where they expect to be alone.

Extortion is extortion.

What are cyberbullying’s long-term consequences?

Cyberbullying will result in you being sued, sacked, expelled, or even arrested. However, there is the possibility that cyberbullies will have problems with police in a specific trial.

Anti-cyberbullying laws, with context to India

In India, cyberbullying has manifested itself in a variety of forms, and it is only getting worse with each passing day. However, it is surprising that India has yet to enact anti-cyberbullying legislation. However, there are several cyber laws in India that cover some of the activities that are known as cyberbullying.


Sec.66A – Using a chat service to send hostile messages, etc.


Identity Theft (Section 66C)


Sec.66D – Using the machine resource to cheat by personation.


Violation of privacy (Section 66E)


Sec.67B – Penalties for printing or distributing in electronic form content showing children in any sexually suggestive act, etc.


Sec.72 – Breach of privacy and secrecy


Sending threatening messages by email is punishable under Section 503 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC).


IPC Section 509 – Insulting a woman’s modesty with a phrase, expression, or behaviour.


Sending defamatory messages via email (Section 499 IPC)


IPC Sec. 500 – Email Abuse

Gaps in literature

In the past decade, scholars, politicians, and educators have paid more attention to cyberbullying. However, there is a general lack of a consolidated and systemic view of modern bullying awareness. We need a clearer idea of which young people are more likely to be bullies, suspects, or bystanders online, as well as the situations under which young people are more likely to stand up to cyberbullying. Documenting the features of emerging anti-cyberbullying programmes being used in US colleges, as well as youth perceptions of these interventions, is a vital part of this study.

This knowledge will aid in determining which programmes should be strengthened and expanded, as well as which should be replaced.

Future Directions and Conclusion

Cyberbullying and cybersafety prevention initiatives are still now being established and tested. Parents can get information about how to better protect their children from websites, tip sheets, and other online tools. However, it appears that these online services are often marketed by product-selling organisations and are seldom based on science.

If this evidence isn’t backed up by research, there’s a chance it might be dangerous. When evaluating content on these pages, parents, students, school officials, and health care professionals can exercise caution and rely on online tools offered by government departments and policy organisations that use data to direct their recommendations.

In the case of cyberbullying, health care professionals should advise parents about how to set reasonable screen time limits, track their children’s use of devices, speak to their children about Internet protection and privacy, and figure out why their children are not telling them about their online interactions. In brief, more analysis is needed to decide how best to engage in the different areas that schools, families, and health care services are dealing with cyberbullying.

Texial is your ally in the fight against cyberbullying!

Texial is a private forensic laboratory that provides cyberbullying consulting and digital forensic facilities. If you need help preventing or reporting cyberbullying in India, Texial is here to help.


The new advanced forensics instruments and software are housed in Texial’s state-of-the-art digital forensics laboratory. This allows them to collaborate with law enforcement agencies in the investigation of online defamation and cyberbullying cases.

Do not take the bait! Understanding Email Phishing

What precisely is phishing?

Phishing is a tactic used by hackers to trick you into providing personal information or account data. Hackers steal sensitive data by generating new user passwords or inserting malware (such as backdoors) into your device once they have your knowledge.

Financial frauds or identity hacks perpetrated using the victim’s private information are the more serious consequences of phishing. Phishing is responsible for almost 90 percent of all data breaches.

What are the various kinds of phishing scams?

Depending on the perpetrator, phishing attacks will hit a wide variety of people. It is likely that this is a generic email phishing scam searching for someone with a PayPal account. However, these are almost certainly phishing attempts. Phishing may also take the form of an email that is sent to only one user. Because of their access, the attacker would devote time and effort to crafting an email for a single recipient. If the email is on this end of the continuum, even the most suspicious individuals are likely to fall victim to it. According to statistics, 91 percent of data security breaches begin with some form of a phishing scheme.

What is the concept of Email Phishing?

Since the 1990s, email phishing has possibly been the most prevalent form of phishing. These are the emails that a hacker sends to any and all email addresses he or she can get his hands on. The email normally advises the user that their account has been compromised and that they must reply immediately by clicking on the ‘this page’. Since the English are not always plain, these assaults are normally easy to detect. It sometimes gives the idea that someone used translation software to go through five different languages before deciding on English.

suspect source if you search the email source and the actual connection that you are being led to.

Sextortion is a form of a phishing scheme that involves giving someone an email that seems to be from themselves. The hacker appears to have broken into your email server and then into the machine in the email. They claim to have two crucial pieces of information: your password and a video of you. The sextortion takes place on the captured footage.

They claim to have two crucial pieces of information: your password and a video of you. The sextortion takes place on the captured footage. According to the claim, you were viewing adult entertainment videos on your monitor while the camera was recording. You must pay them, normally in bitcoin, otherwise, they will reveal the video to your relatives or co-workers.

How to Recognize a Phishing Email?

Every month, users all over the world receive an average of 16 malicious emails! Furthermore, given the plethora of email newsletters that we knowingly sign up for, a detailed review of an email prior to answering can be time-consuming. Nonetheless, being aware is crucial in thwarting future efforts to steal your personal or company information.

Here are few pointers on recognizing a phishing email:

  1. Avoid any email requests for sensitive information.

Remember that a legal company will never send you an email requesting confidential personal or financial information. Furthermore, an organization with which you are familiar would like to have a phone call with you about some account details. Unsolicited emails demanding personal information and containing a connection or attachment should be avoided. It is unquestionably a ruse. Generic Email Salutations Should Be Avoided

  1. Avoid emails that address you as a “respected member,” “favorite client,” “customer,” or “account manager,” among other words. 

    Emails with such generic salutations should be stopped at all times since they are almost invariably spam. Bear in mind that a legal business will call you by your name. Any cyber con artists, on the other hand, totally disregard the salutation portion of the text! As a consequence, make sure you check the other things on this guide and see whether it’s deceptive or not.

  2. Verify the Sender’s Domain in the Email Address

Examining the sender’s address is one of the most effective ways to detect a phishing text. Check the domain in the email address, which is the part after the @. This will give you a good sense of the email’s sources and therefore its validity. Cybercriminals sometimes change the spelling of a domain to make it seem legal. But proceed with caution! But, since businesses often use special or random domains to reach out to their clients, this is not a foolproof tip. Small businesses, in particular, rely on third-party email providers to deliver emails. As a consequence, the dubious-looking domain could be real!

  1. Spelling Errors Can Serve as a Warning Flag

One thing to keep in mind! Any brand and business invest heavily in their proofreaders and copywriters. This is to ensure that the material they distribute to consumers is error-free, factually correct, and grammatically correct. An error in material, particularly in an email to a prospective or current client, is a major source of embarrassment for an organization. As a consequence, it’s self-evident that an email from a legitimate organization must be well-written. Scam texts, on the other hand, are easily detected by their grammatical and spelling mistakes. Hackers, obviously, are not idiots! They know who they’re after, and these phishing emails are often aimed at people in the lower echelons of the educational ladder.

  1. Be wary of uninvited attachments

If you know what the most often used phishing email bait is? Attachments and connections that are unsolicited and suspicious-looking. Emails with random attachments or connections are never sent from a legitimate entity. They would rather take the user to their own website to retrieve the required documentation or files. Companies that have your contact information, on the other hand, can give you white papers, newsletters, and other materials as attachments. So, though you can be careful of attachments with extensions.exe,.scr, and.zip, this isn’t a completely secure trick. In case of uncertainty, the safest course of action is to contact the sender directly.

  1. It makes no difference if you have the world’s most reliable surveillance system. It only takes one untrained employee to be duped by a phishing attack and hand over the information you have worked so long to safeguard. 

Be sure you and your colleagues are all aware of these particular email phishing scenarios, as well as all of the warning signs of a phishing attempt.

Gaps and Limitations and how to tackle them 

Both consumers and companies must take action to defend themselves from phishing attacks. Vigilance is important for consumers. A spoof message sometimes includes inconsequential errors that reveal its true identity. As seen in the previous URL example, these may involve spelling errors or domain name changes. Users should also consider that they are sending such an email in the first place.

The foregoing phishing email detection tips will undoubtedly raise your tolerance and vigilance of phishing attacks. Phishing attacks, on the other hand, are becoming stealthier and more subtle by the day. And seasoned users can find it difficult to spot a phishing email before it’s too late, thanks to changing techniques.

It’s shocking to hear that almost half of all phishing or bogus websites already have SSL Certification or HTTPS encryption! To escape tracking, they are increasingly using tactics such as web page redirects. Fake fonts and other encoding methods are often used by some fake banking websites to give the impression of a real website. Also, the most vigilant customer is finding it more difficult to detect phishing attempts as a result of these tactics.

Texial’s – Phishing Attack Victims Investigation Services

Texial is a forensics laboratory that focuses on optical and Cyber Forensics. Texial’s Lab delivers investigative and cybersecurity expertise and technologies, supported by a roster of the best-in-class forensic experts. Texial’s Lab also delivers cybercrime detection training and information to corporations and law enforcement authorities.

Sick And Tired Of Doing Artificial Intelligence The Old Way? Read This

What is Artificial Intelligence? 

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a broad field of computer science that focuses on creating intelligent machines that can execute functions that would otherwise require human intelligence. AI is a multidisciplinary discipline with many methods, but advances in machine learning and deep learning are causing a paradigm change in almost every industry.

AI is a field of computer science that seeks to mimic or emulate human intelligence in computers at the most basic level. Artificial intelligence’s large objective has ignited a slew of questions and debates. So much so that there is no widely agreed description of the field.


Artificial intelligence can be classified into two categories:

AI with a limited scope: This kind of artificial intelligence, also known as “weak AI,” works in a restricted sense and is a simulation of human intelligence. Although narrow AI is always based on executing a single task exceedingly well, these devices work under much more restrictions and limits than even the most simple human intellect. Artificial General Intelligence (AGI): AGI, also known as “Strong AI,” is the kind of artificial intelligence that we see in movies like Westworld’s robots or Star Trek: The Next Generation’s Data. AGI is a computer that has general intelligence and can use that intelligence to solve any problem, just as a human can.


Ancient Greek mythology included intelligent robots and artificial beings for the first time. The development of syllogism and its introduction to deductive logic by Aristotle was a watershed moment in humanity’s attempt to comprehend its own intellect. Despite its long and deep origins, artificial intelligence as we know it today has only been around for a century.

Basics in Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to systems that can comprehend, read, and function in obtained and generated data. AI today operates in three ways:

Assisted data, which is already freely accessible, enhances what individuals and organisations are already doing.

People and organisations will now do something they couldn’t do before thanks to augmented reality, which is just getting started.

Autonomous intelligence is a form of artificial intelligence that is being designed for the future. It consists of computers that operate independently. Self-driving cars, as they become widely used, would be an example of this.

AI may be said to have certain elements of human intelligence, such as a store of domain-specific knowledge, mechanisms for acquiring new information, and mechanisms for bringing the information to use.

Today’s AI technology includes machine intelligence, expert algorithms, neural networks, and deep learning, to name a few instances or subsets.

Machine learning employs mathematical methods to allow computers to “learn” (e.g., boost output over time) from data rather than being directly programmed. Machine learning performs well when it is focused on a single goal rather than a broad mission.

Expert systems are computer programmes that address problems in specific domains. They solve problems and make decisions using fuzzy rules-based logic and closely selected bodies of information, mimicking the thinking of human experts.

Neural networks are a programming model inspired by biology that allows a machine to learn from observational data. Each node in a neural network assigns a weight to its data, showing how right or incorrect it is in relation to the process at hand. The sum of these weights is then used to calculate the final product.

Deep learning is a form of machine learning that is focused on learning data representations rather than task-specific algorithms. Deep learning-based image processing is now often superior to humans in a range of fields, including autonomous vehicles, scan analyses, and medical diagnosis.

Applying artificial intelligence to cybersecurity

AI is well-suited to solving some of the world’s most challenging challenges, and cybersecurity is surely one of them. Machine learning and AI will be used to “keep up with the bad guys” in today’s ever-evolving cyber-attacks and the explosion of smartphones, automating vulnerability identification and responding more effectively than conventional software-driven approaches. Cybersecurity, on the other hand, poses several special challenges:

A wide assault field.

Thousands or tens of thousands of computers per company

There are hundreds of attack vectors to choose from.

There are significant shortages of trained security personnel.

Massive amounts of data that have developed beyond the reach of a human issue

Many of these issues should be solved by a self-learning, AI-based cybersecurity posture management system. There are technologies available to better train a self-learning machine to collect data from around the business information systems in a continuous and autonomous manner.

Following that, the data is processed and used to conduct pattern correlation across millions to billions of signals specific to the enterprise attack surface. As a result, new levels of intelligence are being fed to human teams in a variety of cybersecurity categories, including:

IT Asset Inventory – compiling a full and comprehensive list of all computers, customers, and programmes with links to information systems. In inventory, categorization and calculation of market criticality are also important.

Threat Exposure – Hackers, like anyone else, track patterns, so what’s trendy for hackers shifts on a daily basis. AI-driven cybersecurity tools can provide up-to-date awareness of global and industry-specific risks, allowing you to prioritise threats based not just on what might be used to target your company, but rather on what is most likely to be used to attack your company.

Controls Effectiveness – To sustain a strong security strategy, it’s critical to consider the effects of the different security tools and processes you’ve implemented. AI will help you find out where the information security software excels and where it falls short.

AI-based programmes can forecast if and when you are most likely to be compromised, taking into account IT asset inventory, vulnerability presence, and controls effectiveness, so you can allocate resources and tools to places of vulnerability. Prescriptive knowledge obtained from AI research will assist you in configuring and optimising controls and processes to produce the best performance.

Incident response – AI-powered applications may have a better background for prioritising and responding to vulnerability threats, for fast incident response, and for surfacing root causes in order to eliminate bugs and prevent potential problems.

Explainability of recommendations and review is key to using AI to complement human information security teams. This is crucial for achieving buy-in from stakeholders around the company, recognising the effect of various information management initiatives, and reporting relevant data to all stakeholders, including end customers, security operations, the CISO, auditors, the CIO, CEO, and the board of directors.

Adversaries’ Use of AI

Instead of actively running after malicious behaviour, IT security practitioners will use AI and machine learning (ML) to implement sound cybersecurity policies and shrink the threat surface. State-sponsored criminals, terrorist cyber-gangs, and ideological hackers, on the other hand, may use the same AI tactics to bypass protections and evade detection.

The “AI/cybersecurity conundrum” exists here. Companies will need to be aware of the possible drawbacks of AI as it matures and expands into the cybersecurity space:

Hackers can defeat security algorithms by targeting the data they train on and the warning flags they search for, so machine learning and artificial intelligence can help protect against cyber-attacks.

Hackers may also use AI to circumvent protections and build mutating malware that alters its configuration in order to prevent detection.

AI systems can provide misleading findings and false negatives if they are not fed large amounts of data and incidents.

Organizations would fail to retrieve the right data that feeds their AI programmes if data theft goes undetected, with potentially catastrophic results.


AI has emerged as a necessary technology for augmenting the contributions of human information management teams in recent years. Since humans can no longer defend the complex organisational attack surface effectively, AI offers much-needed research and vulnerability detection that can be used by cybersecurity experts to reduce intrusion risk and enhance protection posture. In the field of security, AI can recognise and prioritise danger, detect malware on a network instantly, guide incident response, and detect intrusions before they occur.

AI enables cybersecurity teams to form powerful human-machine collaborations that extend our expertise, enhance our lives, and propel cybersecurity in ways that seem to be greater than the number of their parts.

Do You Hear The Sound Of Bot?

What is a Bot?

A bot (short for “robot”) is an Internet-based automated software. Many bots operate on their own, while others only execute commands when given explicit orders. Easy, structurally repetitive tasks are performed much faster by bots than by humans. Bots are usually innocuous and important for making the internet valuable and useful, but when used by cybercriminals, they can be malignant and harmful.


The advent of Internet Relay Chat, abbreviated IRC, in 1988 gave rise to some of the first internet bots. Early IRC bots supported users with automatic resources and sat in a channel to discourage the server from shutting it down due to inactivity. Web crawlers with the first search engines is another early bot used on the internet. WebCrawler, which was developed in 1994, was the first bot to search web sites. AOL was the first to use it in 1995 and Excite acquired it in 1997. BackRub was the name assigned to the most popular internet crawler, Googlebot when it was first created in 1996. Some of the earliest botnet programs were Sub7 and Pretty Park, which were a Trojan and a worm, respectively. They were relinquished into the IRC network in 1999. The purport of these bots was to install themselves furtively on machines when they connect to an IRC channel so they could heedfully auricularly discern for maleficent commands. In the year 2000, the next notable botnet programme, GTbot, appeared on the IRC network. This bot was a spoof mIRC client capable of launching some of the first DDoS attacks. In the years since, botnet creators have been able to use infected machines to carry out a variety of attacks, including ransomware and data theft. Botnets eventually moved away from IRC and began communicating via HTTP, SSL, and ICMP. Botnets have become more common in recent years, and experts consider them to be a hacker’s favourite tool. “Storm” was the name of one of the largest botnets that appeared in 2007. This bot was thought to have infected up to 50 million computers and was used for a variety of criminal activities, including stock price manipulation and identity theft.

How Bots have shaped today’s internet

Without bots, the internet as we know it today does not work. Web crawlers, such as Googlebot, help us to easily locate the most important information by browsing through millions of webpages in a matter of seconds. Chatbots, also known as “chatterbots,” have become important for the seamless running of chat rooms and dialogue windows on a number of websites. Chatterbots have advanced to the point that they can also trick humans, as shown by the Cleverbot. Bot traffic currently accounts for nearly half of all internet traffic. Bots are important for the internet to act as an efficient and useful platform, but they also pose a serious threat to networks, ISPs, and users when generated by criminals. In the coming years, the IT industry will develop more sophisticated methods for distinguishing bots from humans, while search engines will continue to optimise bots to better understand human language and behaviour in order to improve the internet.

Good Bots Vs Bad Bots

Good Bots

Bots that are ‘good’ are an important aspect of the internet. In 2015, good bots accounted for roughly 36% of all web traffic. In 2015, bots developed primarily to damage websites, steal data, or conduct other malicious actions accounted for at least 18 per cent of all web traffic.

Bad bots

Bots that commit malicious actions, steal data, or inflict harm to sites or networks by a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, which include overwhelming a site with much more data requests than it can manage, are known as bad bots. Poor bots are commonly used to search servers, machines, and networks for exploits that can be exploited to hack them. Botnets are used to coordinate bad bots. C&Cs, or command and control servers, are in possession of these botnets. This centralization on a few C&Cs made botnets very vulnerable for Take-Downs. Make sure the C&Cs goes offline and the botnet will be not actionable anymore. Botnets communicating via P2P are increasingly replacing this definition, making it much more difficult to identify and rendering some current security solutions redundant. Bot identification is (or should be) a high priority for any organisation that has an online presence. Malicious bots currently account for about a third of all web traffic, and they are responsible for many of the more serious security risks that online companies face today.

Bot Detection

Bot Detection is (or should be) a high priority for any organisation that has an online presence. Malicious bots currently account for about a third of all web traffic, and they are responsible for many of the more serious security risks that online companies face today.

Bot management

Bot management is a technique for filtering which bots are granted access to your site properties. You may make helpful bots like Google crawlers while blocking harmful or unwanted bots like those used in cyberattacks using this technique. Bot control techniques are meant to identify bot activity, find the origins of the bot, and assess the purpose of the activity. Bot management utilises a combination of security, machine learning, and web development tools to reliably analyse bots and block malicious behaviour while leaving legitimate bots untouched.

How does Bot management work?

Bot control strategies have developed to balance attackers’ bot strengths and uses. Modern bot management faces a two-pronged challenge: detecting intruder bots who are becoming highly adept at imitating human users and separating malicious bots from legitimate bots, which can be crucial to an organization’s day-to-day operations. To detect and control bots, three major methods are currently used.

  1. Static approach—identifies header information and site requests that are considered to be associated with bad bots using static analysis methods. This is a passive technique that can only detect recognised and active bots.

  2. To classify bots, a challenge-based approach is used, which uses active tasks or tests that are challenging or impossible for bots to achieve. CAPTCHA verification, the ability to run JavaScript, and cookie acceptance are all common challenges.

  3. Behavioural approach—evaluates prospective consumers’ activity and correlates it to known trends to validate their identity. This approach classifies behaviour and distinguishes between human users, good bots, and bad bots using multiple profiles.

To ensure that a greater number of bots are detected, the most successful bot management methods incorporate all three techniques. Combining techniques improves your chances of detecting bots, even if they were created recently or have dynamic behaviours.  There are bot mitigation services available in addition to self-management of bots. To apply the above techniques and identify bots, these services use automated tools. To prevent API abuse, most services monitor your API traffic and implement rate-limiting. Instead of focusing on a single IP, rate-limiting allows services to restrict bots across your entire landscape.


In the future, more and more businesses will create software. Bots may gather information and interpret it in order to take critical actions. Bots are used to automate personal tasks and everyday activities such as exercise, childcare, infants, e-learning, and so on. Chatbots are becoming more popular in a number of market functions and user applications. Automation will make the origins extra clear in the future. Moving forward, automation will deepen its roots ever further and solve all of the chatbot problems that companies face. Your customer path and engagement would be positively impacted if you have a thorough understanding of your company criteria and introduce bots accordingly.

Ransom in the world of Malware: Understanding Ransomware

Understanding the basics

Ransomware is a type of malware that blocks access to data or systems unless a ransom is paid and threatens to publish it, Some Ransomware has a deadline. If the victim fails to pay up by the deadline then they may lose the data. Most exchanges are done via Bitcoin. 

Ransomware is a rapidly increasing threat to the data files of individuals and companies. On an infected computer, it encrypts data and retains the key to decrypt the files before the user pays a ransom. This malware is responsible for damages of hundreds of millions of dollars each year. Due to the large amounts of money to be made, new versions appear frequently.

Mechanics of Ransomware

There is a very compressed timeline of an attack. From exploitation and poisoning to getting the ransom note, you frequently have 15 minutes.

Step 1: Infection-Ransomware is downloaded and installed on the computer secretly the most common way of sending ransomware is phishing mail.

Step 2: Execution-Ransomware searches and maps locations for targeted types of files, including locally stored files, and network-accessible mapped and unmapped networks. Any ransomware attacks also erase all backup files and directories or encrypt them.

Step 3: Encryption-Ransomware uses the encryption key to share a key with the Command and Control Server to scramble all files located during the execution step. Access to the data is also blocked.

Step 4: User Notification-Ransomware adds instruction files that detail the method of pay for decryption and uses those files to show the user a ransom note.

Step 5: Cleanup – Ransomware normally terminates and destroys itself, leaving behind the instruction files for payment.

Step 6 : Payment: In the payment directions, the victim taps a connection that brings the victim to a web page with extra details about how to make the appropriate payment. To prevent detection by network traffic monitoring, secret TOR services are also used to encapsulate and obfuscate these messages.

Step 7 : Decryption: The victim will obtain the decryption key after the victim pays the ransom, normally from the Bitcoin address of the offender. There’s no assurance, that the key will be delivered as promised.

Types of Ransomware

There are primarily two kinds of ransomware:

  1. Locker Ransomware – Ransomware from Locker denies access to computing services. It is based on blocking access to a computer such that it is difficult to access the GUI. From there, it prompts payment by users to unlock the unit.
  2. Crypto ransomware – Crypto ransomware denies access to files on the computer. It’s possible to access the user interface on the computer, but the files can’t. By encrypting the files and requesting payment for decryption, it does this.

Examples of Ransomware Attacks


Cryptolocker was one of 2010’s first global ransomware attacks; it infected more than 500,000 computers at its peak in 2013 and 2014. A botnet, distributed through spam email, was used to encrypt user files. Overall, CryptoLocker harvested around $3 million with its variants taken into account.


Gamers were aimed at TeslaCrypt, capitalizing on the importance that devoted users put on files such as saved maps, sports, and material for downloadable video games. For ransom, it encrypted these files. Interestingly enough, the attack developers ended up releasing the encryption key publicly.


SimpleLocker is one of the first smartphone ransomware attacks on a wide scale. It encrypts mobile files through a Trojan downloader, targeting Android users.


One of 2017’s most notable attacks, WannaCry has raced across the United States and Europe, affecting hospitals in particular. A noted Microsoft vulnerability known as EternalBlue took advantage of the attack. Although the patch was released, many systems were unable to implement updates and were left vulnerable, leading to a high volume of infections.

Is there a way to avoid this? 

Preventive mechanisms 

Proactive approaches are a must when it comes to preventing ransomware attacks. An organization needs to plan to stop a computer infection, similar to immunizing yourself from a physical virus.

Update Security – New variants of ransomware are regularly published. Safety tools and operating systems are continuously modified to prevent becoming the target of the latest upgrade. Upgrade any obsolete and unpatched applications and keep up to date on anti-virus rules and signatures. Do not make the work of cybercriminals easy.

Bolster Firewalls- To distinguish and evaluate different kinds of network traffic, firewalls are used. Data is provided when ransomware attacks are publicized to help filter out the threat. In WannaCry, for example, the call was to directly reject all (TCP) Port 445-SMB, (UDP) 137, (UDP) 138, and (TCP) 139 traffic.

Back up your files regularly and frequently – The harm caused by a ransomware attack can be greatly reduced by getting vigilant data backup processes in place, as encrypted data can be recovered without paying a ransom.

A Guide to a career in Cyber Forensics

What is Cyber Forensics?

Cyber Forensics, also known as computer forensics, plays a vital role in investigation of Cyber attacks and Cyber crime. It involves extraction and analysis of digital evidence such as an electronic document and storage mediums.

Cyber Forensics deals with the extraction, preservation, collection, validation, identification, analysis, interpretation, documentation, and presentation of digital evidence derived from any such device that has a storage memory and basic computing power. Cyber Forensics experts are proficient in data recovery that encompasses recovering lost, encrypted, deleted, or damaged data and discovering hidden data residing in a system for investigation.


  • In 1978,first computer crime was recognized in Florida.
  • 1984 work began in the FBI Computer Analysis and Response Team (CART).
  • In 1992, Computer Forensics was introduced in academics.
  • 1995,International Organization on Computer Evidence (IOCE) came into force.
  • In 2000, the First FBI Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory was setup.
  • In 2002, first book on digital forensic called “Best practices for Computer Forensics” was published by Scientific Working Group on Digital Evidence (SWGDE).

Since then, several agencies, each with their own cyber crime divisions,digital forensics labs, dedicated onsite and field agents, collaborating actively in an effort to take on tasks.

India on Digital Forensics

India ranks 15 in the 2019 ranking and moved up to 18 in the 2020 rankings,in inverted scoring system.India also ranks 11th worldwide in the number of attacks caused by servers that were hosted in the country, which accounts of 2,299,682 incidents in 2020 as compared to 854,782 incidents detected in 2019, says the source.

The need for computer forensic experts is growing rapidly. According to a source, the Global Digital Forensics Market is estimated to reach $7 billion by 2024.As India continues to embrace technology and digitization, cybersecurity and digital forensics must be given maximum priority. Cyber forensics is the foundation for an effective and defensive measure against cyberattacks on civilians and government targets. It enables investigators to analyze computer systems after an attack to determine the extent of damage, recover lost data and find the perpetrators.


Several private investigation and cyber security firms hire freshers to perform data recovery.The average salary of a Computer Forensic Investigator is 758,388 per annum and may rise to 11-12 Lakhs pa within 5 years. This super-specialization field allows individuals to get into security and opens the widely acclaimed field of Cyber Security and Incident Response where packages can begin from 4 lakhs and rise up to 12 pa within a span of 5 years.These roles can be satisfied by Digital forensic students. Computer science engineers with knowledge in digital forensics can also cater to the field. Software engineers can perform source-code forensics. Although they are far and rare in India,they come with heavy packages. If you are planning a career in Cyber Forensics, the future is bright.

How to become a Computer Forensic Investigator

Get certified

A Certification in Cyber forensics will provide you with a foundation investigation and computer use,technologies and techniques used in the field. Experience will further advance one’s career and open senior job opportunies.

  • Computer Hacking Forensic Investigator(CHFI)
  • Texial Cyber Forensic Investigator

Get your first Job

Computer forensic jobs can be found in both Government and Private sector.

  • Security Consultant
  • Malware Analyst
  • Computer Forensic Investigator
  • Computer Forensic Technician
  • Information Security Analyst
  • Information Systems Security Analyst
  • Forensic Computer Analyst

Advance with experience

With years of experience one can advance their career as Senior Forensic Expert or start their own practice.

Skills needed

  • Knowledge of Digital storage,Computer OS,Basic programming,Malware & its types and Cyber Law.
  • Knowledge in Ethical/Legal aspects
  • Soft skills-Intuitive,Analytical,Logical,Critical,Problem solving,Communication.

Topics Covered in a Cyber Forensics Course 

The following section shall provide you an outline of the curriculum of Cyber Forensics, Cyber Crimes, Cyber Security & Cyber Law. 

  • Computer Forensics in Today’s World 
  • Computer Forensics Investigation Process 
  • Understanding Hard Disks and File Systems 
  • Operating System Forensics 
  • Defeating Anti-Forensics Techniques 
  • Data Acquisition and Duplication 
  • Network Forensics 
  • Investigating Web Attacks 
  • Database Forensics 
  • Cloud Forensics 
  • Malware Forensics 
  • Investigating E-mail Crimes 
  • Mobile Forensics 
  • Investigative Reports
Digital forensic has a board scope, thus copious amounts of tools go into an investigation. Digital forensic  has a number of sub categories ,for example  Mobile forensic, Memory forensic, Network forensic, Email forensic etc. Number of  tools are available for the same.Some of the major tools are:
Memory Forensic tools 
X way forensic 
Ftk imager 
Email Forensic tools 
Stellar email forensic 
Network Forensic tools 
Network miner 
Mobile Forensic tools 
AF Logical OSE 
Open source android forensic 

Case Study

Krenar Lusha,2009

Krenar Lusha an illegal immigrant of the United Kingdom was arrested based on his internet search pattern. On conducting search on his laptop, it was found that he had downloaded a manual of 4300 GM to make explosives. When they searched his apartment for further investigation, the police also recovered documents entitled The Car Bomb Recognition Guide, 71.8 l of petrol, 4.5lb of potassium nitrate, Improvised Radio Detonation Techniques,Middle Eastern Terrorist Bomb Design, and The Mujahideen Explosives Handbook. The chats via MSN were also recovered from his laptop. He presented himself as a terrorist who wanted to see Jewish and Americans suffer. These conversations were retrieved from his computer and used as digital evidence in the court.

Cyber crime has been on rise for years.As people progressively conduct their personal lives and business online,the data becomes a leverage.With constantly growing cyber attacks the need for Cyber Forensic experts is growing rapidly.According to a source,the job demand in Cyber Forensics will rise upto 32% by 2028.

Texial Cyber Forensic Investigator-Texial Cybersecurity

The Texial Cyber Forensic Investigator training is a comprehensive program that consists of theoretical as well as practical training sessions to give students a hands-on learning experience in analyzing computer systems in the aftermath of a cyberattack and discern their causation.

Top 5 Cyber-Attack Predictions for 2025 and Prevention Strategies

Top 5 Cyber-Attack Predictions for 2022 and Prevention Strategies-texial

Let us understand what cyber-attacks are

In the simplest terms, Cyber-Attacks is an attack conducted against single or more computers or networks by cybercriminals using one or more computers. A Cyber-Attack will disable computers maliciously, steal data or use a damaged computer as a starting point for other attacks. Cybercriminals use a range of tools, including malware, phishing, ransomware, denial of service, among other methods, to launch a cyber-attack. 

Why should you be concerned about a Cyber-Attack? What damage can it cause you?

A total of at least 57 different ways in which cyber-attacks can have a detrimental impact on society, people, and corporations, and even nations have been described by cybersecurity analysts, varying from threats to life, triggering depression, regulatory penalties, or disturbing everyday operations. Cyber miscreants are a big deal. Electrical blackouts, failure of military equipment, and violations of national security secrets can be caused by cyber-attacks. They will allow important, confidential documents such as medical records to be compromised. They can disrupt the networks of phones and computers or paralyze systems, rendering data unavailable. 

What impact do Cyber-Attacks have on us?

The effects of a single, successful cyber-attack can have far-reaching consequences, including financial losses, intellectual property theft, and loss of confidence and trust among consumers. 

  1. Monetary impact– There could be immense overall monetary damages from cybercrime. Every day, more than 1.5 million people fell victim to some form of cyber fraud, ranging from basic login theft to extensive monetary scams, according to a 2012 study by Symantec. This adds up to more than $110 billion dollars lost to cyber fraud globally last year, with an estimated loss of $197 per victim.
  2. Emotional impact– Nearly 65% of global internet users and 73% of US web surfers are victims of cybercriminals, including computer viruses, online credit card fraud, and identity theft. America ranks eighth, behind China (83%) and Brazil and India, as the most abused nations (76 percent). A study conducted co-related emotional well-being to the effect of cybercrime reveals that the greatest responses of victims are felt furious (58 percent), frustrated (51 percent), and deceived (40 percent), and they are blamed for being assaulted in certain instances. Just 3% do not believe that would happen to them, and almost 80% do not expect cybercriminals to be taken to justice, resulting in an ironic hesitation and a feeling of helplessness to act.

    The cybercrime of piracy has had a significant influence on the fields of film, music, and applications. Victim reports are difficult to quantify and much more difficult to validate, with figures varying from hundreds of millions to hundreds of billions of dollars annually.

    3. Social Impact– Cyber predators take full advantage of the Internet’s anonymity, transparency, and interconnectedness, thereby attacking the very roots of our current knowledge system. Bots, computer viruses, cyberbullying, cyber harassment, cyber warfare, cyber pornography, denial of service assaults, hacktivism, stealing of identity, ransomware, and spam may be part of cybercrime. Law enforcement agencies have failed to keep pace with cybercriminals, who cost billions each year to the global economy. 

Let us see some examples of cyber-attacks in the past to comprehend the threat of cyber-attacks better

Defense Hack Department-

 Those who yearn for a Department of Defence security position will have their job cut out for them. Want-to-be hackers attempt to attack his security system on a regular basis, and back in 1999, a Florida teenager managed to compromise the computer system of the military. Jonathan James was able to intercept highly classified emails by installing backdoor software within the computer system of the Defence Threat Reduction Agency. These included information on the International Space Station life support code and many other important matters. 

Virus Melissa

Perhaps Melissa was created in 1999 by a New Jersey programmer with too much idle time on his hands, the first major computer virus that made the world’s population realize that their computers were not always safe. As a simple Microsoft Word program, David L. Smith disguised his virus, and he sent it to innumerable unsuspecting recipients. It then resends itself from the address book of each infected computer to the first 50 individuals. Melissa had compromised a full 20% of the world’s computers a long time ago, and big businesses such as Intel and Microsoft were forced to shut down all outgoing mail programs until the problem could be resolved.

The 1988 Robert Tappan Morris and the Morris Worm

Morris, a student at Cornell University in the USA, maker of the first digital worm distributed via the Internet, believed that his progeny was not meant to hurt but was created with the harmless intent to determine the vastness of cyberspace. When a worm encountered a critical error, things went pear-shaped and morphed into a virus that replicated rapidly and began infecting other computers, resulting in a denial of service. The harm? 6000 computers were reportedly affected, causing repair bills of an estimated $10-$100 million dollars. While this incident may be called an unfortunate tragedy, it played a role in inspiring the calamitous style of distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks that we see today.

Predictions of cyber-attacks for 2022

One of the major concerns of the upcoming threats to society regarding Cyberattacks must prevail along the lines of Invasive Technology.

  1. Invasive Technology- With sensors, cameras, and other devices that are embedded in homes, offices, factories, and public spaces, new technologies will further invade every element of daily life. Between the digital and physical worlds, a constant stream of data will flow, with attacks on the digital world directly affecting the physical world and creating dire consequences for privacy, well-being, and personal safety. With little knowledge about cyber threats, people may not understand the importance of cybersecurity, hence leaving a weakling in the infrastructure of their core business set-up. While big companies will not face much of the heat from attackers as they invest big in cybersecurity, it is the little business owners that will perhaps take the hit.
  2. Neglected Infrastructure– Threats from an increasing number of sources will face the technical infrastructure upon which organizations rely on man-made, natural, accidental, and malicious. Even short periods of downtime will have serious consequences in a world where constant connectivity and real-time processing are vital for doing business. Opportunistic attackers will find new ways to exploit vulnerable infrastructure, steal or manipulate critical data and cripple operations. It is not only the availability of information and services that will be compromised. Opportunistic attackers will discover new ways to target fragile networks, intercept or control sensitive data and cripple operations. It is not just the provision of information and resources that will be affected.
  3. The undermining of the business digital landscape- As new technology and the next generation of workers tarnish corporate reputations, undermine the credibility of knowledge, and inflict financial loss, bonds of confidence will break down. There will be a public criticism of those who lack accountability, put trust in the wrong people and controls, and use technologies in immoral ways. This morale crisis between companies, staff, customers, and clients would threaten the capacity of organizations to perform digital business.
  4. The threat to healthcare companies- Health care companies are under threat as they are the most targeted victims of phishing.
  5. Cloud under attack- The growing popularity of public cloud systems has resulted in a spike in cyber-attacks targeting infrastructure inside these networks and confidential data. As a result, a wide array of attacks has been perpetrated by cloud assets. Misconfiguring cloud environments this year was one of the key triggers of many cases of data misuse and assaults faced by organizations around the world. With updated techniques capable of evading simple cloud security products, cloud crypto-mining campaigns have increased. Docker hosts have been exposed and the crypto-mining campaigns of rivals operating in the cloud have been shut down. Researchers from Check Point have also seen a spike in the number of exploits against public cloud infrastructures that could stretch to and past 2022.
  6. Mobile devices under attack- Malware capable of stealing payment records, passwords, and funds from victims’ bank accounts has been driven out of the general threat environment in combination with the rising use of banks’ mobile apps and has also become a very widespread mobile threat.

  Prevention Strategies

Despite the prevalence of cyber threats, 99 percent of companies are not adequately covered, Check Point report states so. A cyber-attack, however, is preventable. An end-to-end cybersecurity infrastructure that is multi-layered and covers all networks, endpoints, mobile devices, and the cloud is the secret to cyber protection. You can consolidate monitoring of several security levels with the right design and control policies into a single glass pane. This helps you to correlate incidents through all network environments, mobile infrastructures, and cloud providers.

Main Cyber Attack Protection measures:

  1. Maintaining ventilation for protection.
  2. Choose avoidance over-identification.
  3. Protect all vectors for attack.
  4. Implement the most sophisticated innovations.
  5. Maintain up-to-date threat information.